one answer to each discussion.discussion 1Review the following research questions.Is the use of soap and water or alcohol-based rubs more effective in preventing nosocomial infections?Identify an appropriate research design.An appropriate research design for this research question is quantitative research with an experimental design.Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the design.According to Roger Watson (2015), quantitative studies produce numbers that should be interpreted before conclusions may be drawn. This can be considered a strength for this design as numbers allows the researcher to draw conclusion easily. An area of weakness is the idea that the opportunity for error cannot be eliminated entirely. According to Watson (2015) ?it is essential to store data carefully, once it has been entered into any package, since loss can jeopardize the study?.Provide a rationale for the design you selectedThis design allows the research to manipulate the independent variable in order to study the effect it has on the dependent variable. In this case, the researcher is able to identify the effect of soap and water on the prevention of nosocomial infections and the effect is alcohol-based rubs on the prevention if nosocomial infections. The number of occurrences will be compared to draw a conclusionHow effective are anti-depressive medications on anxiety and depression?Identify an appropriate research design.An appropriate research design for this research question is qualitative design.Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the design.According to Leslie Gelling (2014), while utilizing qualitative research, nurses to understand health and illness experiences and offer ‘compassionate, person-centered care. This is considered to be a strength for this design. Gelling also stated that ?a poorly worded question might lead the research in the wrong direction, wasting the researcher’s time and, more importantly, wasting the research participants’ time if the chosen methodology is unable to answer the question (Gelling, 2014). This is the weakness of this design.Provide a rationale for the design you selectedQualitative research is an approach to scientific inquiry that allows researchers to explore human experiences in personal and social contexts, and gain greater understanding of the factors influencing these experiences.What is the difference in attitudes of male and female college students toward condoms?Identify an appropriate research design.An appropriate research design for this research question is a qualitative descriptive design. In a descriptive study without manipulating any variables.Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the design.According to Pathak, Jena, and Kalra (2013), qualitative research is now recognized for its ability to add a new dimension to interventional studies that cannot be obtained through measurement of variables alone. This can be considered to be a strength of this design. Qualitative studies should be well-designed and the aims of the study should be meticulously adjudicated (Pathak, Jena, & Kalra, 2013). On the other hand, descriptive research also presents the possibility for error and subjectivity. Confidentiality is the primary weakness of descriptive research (Murphy, n.d.). Often subjects are not truthful as they feel the need to tell the researcher what they think the researcher wants to hear (Murphy, n.d.).Provide a rationale for the design you selectedQualitative method is used to understand people’s beliefs, experiences, attitudes, behavior, and interactions.ReferencesGelling, L. (2015). Qualitative research. Nursing Standard, 29(30), 43. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org.southuniversity.libproxy.edmc.edu/10.7748/ns.29.30.43.e9749Murphy, J. (n.d.). Strengths and weaknesses of descriptive research. Retrieved from, http://classroom.synonym.com/strengths-weaknesses-descriptive-research-2596.htmlPathak, V., Jena, B., & Kalra, S. (2013). Qualitative research. Perspectives in Clinical Research, 4(3), 192. Retrieved from http://doi.org/10.4103/2229-3485.115389Watson, R. (2015). Quantitative research. Nursing Standard, 29(31), 44. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org.southuniversity.libproxy.edmc.edu/10.7748/ns.29.31.44.e8681discussion 2Use of Soap and Water Versus Alcohol-Based Rubs to Prevent Nosocomial InfectionsThe study chosen for this topic researched the effects of waterless hand rubs versus the traditional hand scrubbing method to prevent infections in surgical rooms. ÿOne hundred operating room staff members from different medical centers were divided into two groups of fifty participants (Chen, Han, Kan, Chen & Hung, 2012). ÿOne group used waterless hand rubs and the other group of workers used traditional hand washing techniques as part of the scrubbing process for surgeries. ÿThe hands of the participants were scrubbed and a bacterial culture was done on the two groups of participants (Chen et al., 2012). ÿAfter a forty-eight hour period of bacterial growth of both samples, the results demonstrated bacteria growth was equal among the two groups (Chen et al., 2012). ÿThere were no statistical significance found. ÿThe study concluded that alcohol-based rubs and water provide the same level of protection among operating room staff (Chen et al., 2012).Strengths and WeaknessesOne of the strengths of the study was the method of conducting the study was the same among the two participant groups (Chen et al., 2012). ÿThe time the participants took in applying the alcohol-based rub and washing hands were the same. ÿThe weakness of the study was the participant sample was rather small (Chen et al., 2012). ÿA larger study conducted at different facilities provides better evidence of the findings. ÿAlso, a study with a larger sample population may have also resulted in different findings (Chen et al., 2012).Rationale for the DesignThe study selected is a quantitative research that attempted to estimate the required scrubbing times using alcohol-based scrubs and traditional handwashing technique for operating room staff (Chen et al., 2012). ÿAlso the study focused on comparing the use of alcohol-based hand rubs versus the traditional handwashing techniques in prevention of nosocomial infections in the operating room (Chen et al., 2012).Relationship Between Alcohol and Breast CancerThe article reviewed focused on possible pathways of alcohol into the breast tissue and possible consequences. ÿThe study also reviewed the women?s age in relations to drinking habits, in an attempt to identify a possible connection between early alcohol consumption among women and breast cancer (Liu, Nguyen, & Colditz, 2015). ÿThe study concluded that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with higher risk of breast cancer (Liu, Nguyen, & Colditz, 2015).Strengths and WeaknessesA strength of the study is there was significant evidence to suggest that the risk of cancer increases by thirty-four percent for those women who had an alcohol intake greater than fifteen drinks per day (Liu, Nguyen, & Colditz, 2015).ÿ A weakness identified in the study was that other lifestyle components that may increase the risk of breast cancer were not taken into consideration when conducting the study (Liu, Nguyen, & Colditz, 2015).Rationale for the DesignThis research was focused on the possible influence of timing and patterns of alcohol consumption and the possible mechanisms underlying alcohol and breast cancer association. ÿThe possible pathways of alcohol into the breast tissue were studied (Liu, Nguyen, & Colditz, 2015). ÿThe women?s age in relation to drinking habits for possible connection between early alcohol consumption in women and breast cancer were also studied (Liu, Nguyen, & Colditz, 2015).Difference in Attitudes Between Male and Female Students Towards CondomsFemale and male participants from a treatment-seeking substance abuse treatment program were studied in relations to their attitudes and skills towards the use of condoms. ÿThe study found that men found more barriers to using condoms than women (Calsyn, Peavy, Wells, Campbell, Hatch-Maillette, Greenfield & Tross, 2013). ÿThe study used electronic interviews for assessment of skills and attitude towards the use of condom (Calsyn et al., 2013).Strengths and WeaknessesA strength of the study was the participants researched were at high risk for unprotected sex practice (Calsyn et al., 2013). ÿA limitation found in the study was that the information was taken from two different studies that were not designed to compare men and women (Calsyn et al., 2013). ÿAnother limitation of the study was the participants studied were a selected population from a drug abuse treatment program, which may or may have not influenced the findings (Calsyn et al., 2013).Rationale for the DesignThe reason for the study was to examine the differences between males and females in relationship to condom use; the attitude towards the practice of wearing condom and the skills among both groups (Calsyn et al., 2013).ReferencesCalsyn, D. A., Peavy, K. M., Wells, E. A., Campbell, A. N. C., Hatch-Maillette, M. A., Greenfield, S. F., & Tross, S. (2013). Differences between men and women in condom use, attitudes, and skills in substance abuse treatment seekers. The American Journal on Addictions / American Academy of Psychiatrists in Alcoholism and Addictions, 22(2), 150?157. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1521-0391.2013.00312.xChen, C., Han, C., Kan, C., Chen, S., & Hung, P. W. (2012). Effect of surgical site infections with waterless and traditional hand scrubbing protocols on bacterial growth. American Journal of Infection Control, 40(4), e15. doi:10.1016/j.ajic.2011.09.008Liu, Y., Nguyen, N., & Colditz, G. A. (2015). Links between alcohol consumption and breast cancer: A look at the evidence. Women’s Health (London, England), 11(1), 65?77. doi:10.2217/whe.14.62discussion questionReview the following research questions.Is the use of soap and water or alcohol-based rubs more effective in preventing nosocomial infections?How effective are anti-depressive medications on anxiety and depression?For patients of 70 years and older, how effective is the use of the influenza vaccine at preventing flu as compared to patients who have not received the vaccine?What is the relationship between alcohol and breast cancer?What is the difference between self-efficacy scores in older adults who exercise and the scores of those who do not?What is the difference in attitudes of male and female college students toward condoms?Next, select 3 of the above questions and address the following:Identify an appropriate research design.Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the design.Provide a rationale for the design you selected
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