DIRECTIONS- For each PROMPT , Your thread should contain 400–500 words. . Each thread should cite at least two references to support the information you present. Each thread should adhere to AMA writing guidelines and any references included in the thread should be formatted in AMA style. Since this is a personal discussion, you are allowed to use first person perspective; however, you should maintain professional decorum in all your posts.

  1. Using the data from that study, describe the public health problem in terms of magnitude, person, time and place.
  2. Discuss the basic epidemiology measures used in the study. Specifically what measure of risk was used?
  3. How was risk calculated? (Hint: Consider a 2 by 2 table to display the data).
  4. Do you agree with the authors’ conclusions?
  5. What would you infer from the data? Why?

**An example of a cohort based on an entire population comes from the city of Tecumseh, Michigan, which was selected to examine the contribution of environmental and constitutional factors to the maintenance of health and the origins of illness. Begun in 1959–1960, the Tecumseh study successfully enrolled 8,641 persons, 88% of the community residents.12 For some applications, cohort studies may be larger than a given community. The Iowa Women’s Health Study included a random sample of 41,83713 women between the ages of 55 and 69 in 1986 in the entire state.

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sources for study-

12.Francis T Jr., Epstein FH. Survey methods in general populations: Tecumseh, Michigan. In: Acheson RM, ed. Comparability in International Epidemiology. Princeton, NJ: Milbank Memorial Fund; 1965:333–342.

13.Bisgard KM, Folsom AR, Hong CP, Sellers TA. Mortality and cancer rates in nonresponders to a prospective study in older women: 5-year follow-up. Am J Epidemiol. 1994;139:990–1000.


Prompt 2- Cataracts of the eye may be difficult to diagnose in the early stages. In a study to evaluate the reliability of their diagnoses, two physicians each examined the same 1,000 eyes, without knowing the other’s diagnoses. Each physician found 100 eyes with cataracts.

  1. Does this mean that the diagnoses are reliable?
  2. Explain your position.
  3. How does reliability affect screening and treatment programs for a condition?
  4. What are the socio-political ramifications of understanding reliability prior to implementing a screening program?
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