Writing Assignment: Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries

Overview

After reading chapter 14 in your textbook, you should be able to recognize and care for bone injuries, including open and closed fractures, and joint injuries, including dislocations and sprains. Additionally, you should be able to recognize muscle injuries, such as strains, cramps, and contusions.

Instructions

Write a brief 3-paragraph compare-and-contrast essay.

  1. The first paragraph should compare and contrast open and closed fractures.
  2. The second paragraph should compare and contrast dislocations and sprains.
  3. The third paragraph should compare and contrast strains and cramps.
    • 5 sentences per paragraph is required.
    • MLA format (Links to an external site.) is required

      Chapter 14 Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries

       

       

      Bone Injuries

      • Associated with a forceful cause of injury • May present with obvious disfigurement • The real problems associated with

      fractures are the potential injury to the vital organs next to them.

       

       

      Fractures

      • Fracture and broken bone both mean a break or crack in a bone.

      • Two categories −Closed—skin is intact. −Open—skin has been

      broken.

      © Jones & Bartlett Learning.

       

       

      Types of Fractures

      • Greenstick—incomplete fracture • Traverse—cut across bone at right angles • Oblique—cross bone in a slanting direction

      © Jones & Bartlett Learning.

       

       

      Types of Fractures

      • Comminuted—bone is fragmented into more than two pieces

      • Impacted—broken ends are jammed together

      • Spiral—results from a twisting injury

       

       

      Fractures: What to Look For

      • Use DOTS to assess for injury: −Deformity −Open wounds − Tenderness − Swelling

      © E. M. Singletary, M.D. Used with permission.

       

       

      Fractures: What to Look For

      • Loss of function • Guarding • Crepitus—grating sensation • History of injury that includes a serious

      incident

       

       

      Fractures: What to Do

      • Check for life-threatening conditions first. • Gently remove clothing covering the area. • Look and feel for DOTS.

       

       

      Fractures: What to Do

      • Check pulse and nerves using the mnemonic CSM. −C—Circulation

      • For arm injury, feel for radial pulse.

      • For leg injury, feel for posterior tibial pulse.

      © Jones & Bartlett Learning. Courtesy of MIEMSS.

      © Jones & Bartlett Learning. Courtesy of MIEMSS.

       

       

      Fractures: What to Do

      • Use CSM (cont’d) − Sensation

      • Lightly touch or squeeze one of the person’s toes or fingers while his or her eyes are closed.

      • Ask which finger or toe he or she feels.

      © Jones & Bartlett Learning. Courtesy of MIEMSS.

      © Jones & Bartlett Learning. Courtesy of MIEMSS.

       

       

      Fractures: What to Do

      • Use CSM (cont’d) −M—Movement

      • Have the person wiggle his or her toes and fingers. © Jones & Bartlett Learning. Courtesy of MIEMSS.

      © Jones & Bartlett Learning. Courtesy of MIEMSS.

       

       

      Fractures: What to Do

      • Stabilize part. • For open fracture:

      −Do not push on protruding bones.

      −Cover wound with a dressing.

      • Seek medical care. © American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

       

       

      Joint Injuries

      • A joint is where two or more bones come together.

       

       

      Dislocations

      • A dislocation occurs when a joint comes apart and stays apart with the bone ends no longer in contact.

      © American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

       

       

      Dislocations: What to Look For

      • Deformity (main sign) • Tenderness, severe pain • Swelling • Inability to move injured part • Numbness or impaired circulation of

      extremity

       

       

      Dislocations: What to Do

      • Call 9-1-1 if: − Extremity looks blue or extremely pale − Transport of the person would be difficult or

      might aggravate the injury • Check the CSM.

       

       

      Dislocations: What to Do

      • If EMS will arrive soon, hold injured part to stabilize until they arrive.

      • If EMS will be delayed or you are transporting to distant medical care, use the RICE procedure.

      • Do not try to reduce a dislocation.

       

       

      Sprains

      • Occurs when a joint is twisted or stretched beyond its normal range of motion −Results in partially

      or completely torn ligaments

      © Sean Gladwell/Dreamstime.com.

       

       

      Sprains: What to Look For

      • Similar signs and symptoms to a fracture − Severe pain − Swelling −Discolored skin around the joint

       

       

      Sprains: What to Do

      • Use the RICE procedure. −Rest. − Ice. Apply for 20 minutes. −Compression. Apply for 3 to 4 hours.

      • Repeat the cycle of ice and compression. − Elevate. Raise the injured part.

       

       

      Muscle Injuries

      • Muscle injuries pose no real emergency.

       

       

      Strains

      • Occurs when a muscle is stretched beyond its normal range of motion

      • Inflammation begins immediately. −Can take 24 to 72 hours for pain and stiffness

      to begin

       

       

      Strains: What to Look For

      • Occurs during physical activity • Sharp pain • Extreme tenderness • Inability to use injured part • Stiffness and pain when muscle is used

       

       

      Strains: What to Do

      • Use the RICE procedure.

       

       

      Cramps

      • Occurs when a muscle goes into an uncontrolled spasm and contraction

      • Associated with diabetes, atherosclerosis, and physical activity

      • Two categories −Night cramps −Heat cramps

       

       

      Cramps: What to Look For

      • Sudden, severe muscle pain • A muscle, often calf muscle, that feels

      hard because of muscle contraction • Residual discomfort, may last for a few

      hours

       

       

      Cramps: What to Do

      • Gently stretch the muscle. • Relax the muscle. • Apply an ice pack. • For heat cramps:

      −Drink lightly salted cool water. −Drink a commercial sports drink.

       

       

      Muscle Contusion

      • A muscle contusion or bruise results from a blow to the muscle.

       

       

      Contusions: What to Look For

      • Person reports blow to a muscle • Swelling • Pain and tenderness • Black and blue mark appearing hours later

       

       

      Contusions: What to Do

      • Use the RICE procedure. • Seek medical care for any contusion larger

      than the person’s palm.

       

      • Chapter 14
      • Bone Injuries
      • Fractures
      • Types of Fractures
      • Types of Fractures
      • Fractures: What to Look For
      • Fractures: What to Look For
      • Fractures: What to Do
      • Fractures: What to Do
      • Fractures: What to Do
      • Fractures: What to Do
      • Fractures: What to Do
      • Joint Injuries
      • Dislocations
      • Dislocations: What to Look For
      • Dislocations: What to Do
      • Dislocations: What to Do
      • Sprains
      • Sprains: What to Look For
      • Sprains: What to Do
      • Muscle Injuries
      • Strains
      • Strains: What to Look For
      • Strains: What to Do
      • Cramps
      • Cramps: What to Look For
      • Cramps: What to Do
      • Muscle Contusion
      • Contusions: What to Look For
      • Contusions: What to Do
 
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