• Type of paper Research Paper
  • Subject Biology
  • Number of pages 7
  • Format of citation Harvard
  • Number of cited resources  15
  • Type of service  WritingTopic: You are in a busy community practice. A patient who is eligible for the Flu vaccine comes to receive her annual jab. She can’t understand why she needs to Get this every year and wants To get a one shot to protect her permanently. How would you advise her and what are the possibilities for a one shot vaccine?

    Write a research paper answering the question above only using peer-reviewed published journal articles. Max 2000 words, not including references. Size 11 Calibri, 1.5 spaced. Paper must have Introduction, body and conclusion. Conclusion must state the recommended treatment for the patient.

    Topics to cover:

    · Various types of Influenza (A,B,C)

    · History/background

    · Epidemiology

    · Pathology/ herd immunity/ symptoms

    · Transmission

    · Different treatments

    · Annual vaccinations

    · Trivalent, quadrivalent (how vaccinations are synthesized)

    · Include pros and cons of treatments

    · Patients who qualify for vaccinations

    · Current on-going research on influenza and “one shot” vaccination

    · Why it is difficult to create a one-shot vaccination

    · Best treatment for patient in question


    Bilal, Ivona, Kieu & Liam


    You are GP in a busy community practice. A patient who is eligible for the Flu vaccine comes to receive her annual jab. She can’t understand why she needs to get this every year and wants to get a one shot to protect her permanently. How would you advise her and what the possibilities for one shot vaccine?

    Types of influenza virus

    There are 3 types of influenza:

    Influenza A which affects Birds and mammals

    Influenza B and influenza C infect humans only

    Mention why A, B and C are different



    Aussies are used to predict suspected prominent strains

    Doesn’t always work

    Low efficacy amongst certain demographics

    Countries with Clear winter to predict seasonality

    countries that do not have clear seasons suffer with a year round dominant strain



    Transmission: Spread up to 6 feet,

    When infected people cough, sneeze, touch or talk


    Also via contaminated objects (Formites)

    Social patterns (i.e. during school holiday reduce transmission)


    Usually replicates throughout respiratory tree in epithelial cells .

    Mild cases would affect upper respiratory tree, if left untreated, the illness could spread to the lower part of the respiratory tract (pneumonia).

    Diagnostic tests include: Accurate tests use RT-PCR alongside immunohistochemical tests for confirmation


    High fever

    Build up of mucous in airways (coryza)



    Fatigue (prostration)

    Inflammation of upper respiratory


    Spanish flu: 1918 – 50 to 100 million people world wide died as result

    Killed young and healthy adults as well as those at risk – major pandemic

    Can develop into pneumonia, bronchitis, aveolitis sinusitis and pulmonary oedema and pulmonary haemorrhage.

    Even if eradicated in Humans there is still Animal reservoirs

    Herd Immunity

    – In Novgorod, Russia, teachers in classrooms with students that were vaccinated and unvaccinated were protected


    Available vaccines

    Seasonal Vaccination



    Get flu- like symptoms

    Reduces risk of flu illness by 40-60% in the overall population during season when most flu viruses are well matched to the flu vaccine



    Definition: Flu shot against 3 strains of influenza expected to circulate throughout flu season (one type B, two type A)

    Standard-dose trivalent shots

    A high dose trivalent shot

    Recombinant trivalent shot that is egg free

    Scandinavian Narcolepsy


    Definition: Flu shot against 4 strains of influenza expected to circulate throughout flu season (two type B, and two type A)

    Quadrivalent flu shots

    An interdermal quadrivalent flu shot

    A recombinant quadrivalent flu shot

    One shot

    Vaccine definition

    “Universal” flu vaccine that protects against all human influenza strains, which means for influenza A, main strains, bird flu, as well as past pandemic strains

    Why can’t it work

    Antigenic variation that occurs within the strains of influenza which can to a variety of subtypes

    Animal reservoir and mixing vessels

    Mixing vessels: theory within pigs that genetic assortment can occur between avian and human


    Provides strength and rigidity

    Membrane glycoprotein, cleaves sialic acid groups from host glycoproteins.  Required for release from host cell

    Membrane glycoprotein, major viral antigen.  Required for entry and release from host cell

    Ion channel required for pH maintenance

    RNA polymerases required for transcription of viral RNA


    At risk groups

    Seasonal susceptibility (I.e. likeliness to catch in colder seasons)



    Young children


    cardiac issues

    Pulmonary Disease

    Pregnant woman

    Immuno- compromised

    Care Givers (Doctors, nurses, etc.)

    Elderly over age of 65

    What effects the efficacy of the vaccine

    Schools will closed during pandemics


    Current research

    one shot


    Transmission (birds?)

    Countries with seasons

    Countries along equator (such as Singapore)

    Countries that have flu season tend to not vaccinate during summer whereas countries closer to the equator vaccinate all year round (with constant research) due to the slight peak that will occur during the year

    Domestic animal (birds, chickens etc)



    Annual jab is best suited

    At your own risk/ can’t force the jab

    CDC 2017 recommendation

    Who should not be vaccinated

    New strains

    Still suffer even with protection

    not recommended for individuals under 6 months of age

    (1) effectiveness wears off over time (2) new strains will develop

    If you get the flu it will be milder with the vaccine

    Reduces deaths in children caused by flu by 50%, and reduces overall transmission to community


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