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Please follow the instructor carefully. There are 2 Discussions ,your response to classmates should be at least one paragraph for each Discussion, address the discussion topic or question, be respectful, and add to the discussion. You may draw upon personal experience, course or scholarly references, citing appropriately. Restating the primary response, or agreeing or disagreeing without supporting statements will result in a lower grade.
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In reference to including a paragraph for both primary and peer responses, 4-5 sentences constitute a paragraph.
Cigarettes and tobacco were an integral part of army life since the First World War. The British trade journal Tobacco claimed “It might almost be said that a man in the firing line first thinks of his cartridges and the very next thing he sees to worry about is ammunition for this pipe. The pipe itself is only less previous than the rifle.” When soldiers were departing for war it was common to give cigarettes as a farewell gift. Organizations such as the YMCA and Red Cross Society raised funds to ensure that troops received steady supply of tobacco products especially cigarettes. It was a different time and cigarettes were a way to deal with the stress of the day and it was a shared activity between friends. This continued to be a running theme during World War II and it progressed to tobacco companies provided free cigarettes to soldiers. This trend of cigarette smoking did not seem to fade away and it was adopted by everyone including healthcare professionals up until the 1950s. The Journal of American Medical Association published that smoking is now linked to several kinds of cancer, including lung cancer, and other diseases. It took nearly 15 years for Congress to pass the Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act, which require all cigarette packages to display warning from the Surgeon General. The Surgeon’s General report turned the tide of smoking as it had the most positive impact compared to any other interventions or campaigns that came subsequently. It has influenced many policies in 1975 cigarettes were not included in the military rations and the smoking rate dropped down 32% from the 1980s according (Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Smoking Cessation in Military and Veteran Populations, Bondurant, S., & Wedge, R., 2009.
a. The surgeon general report in 1964 was highly evidence based backed by science, which wasn’t the case previously. According to the author of Major Tobacco-Related Events in the United States, George Grob, the report Smoking and Health was released. This report took thousands of studies focused on illnesses that cigarette smoking caused such as lung cancer and emphysema and presented them with scientific facts. After this report came out cigarette consumption was reduced by 15%. A big event that I believe “turned the tide” was the fact that insurance companies were offering discounted rates to nonsmokers. This is a big incentive to abstain from tobacco use. This report gave policy makers grounds to regulate the way ads presented smoking to the public, and create an advertising code that companies needed to abide by.
b. In 1968 Philip Morris released the Virginia Slim cigarettes. These had a great impact on woman, and they used the media to feed off of insecurities than women face on a daily basis. They used marketing strategies that emphasized “slim” and “thin” as a means of connecting with women who may have image issues. The ads even went to the extent of showing a woman dressed as a pharaoh, as a means to show power and control. This obviously caused a rise in the number of women who used tobacco, having a negative impact on the overall health of women. According to tobacco free kids, smoking still causes more than 80% of deaths in women due to cancer, and is also associated with spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, and SIDS. This marketing strategy would still work in society today. I know as a young woman I have always struggled with body image. In my early 20’s I too smoked as a means to curb my appetite. There were even cigarettes that were created specifically for women in mind. They came in a sparkly pink box, and the paper the tobacco was wrapped in was pink. This to me was a more of a modern day marketing tactic that was largely related to what Philip Morris did with Virginia Slims.
c. In 1995 an article was released by JAMA that showed that tobacco companies knew about the adverse health effects and addictions caused by cigarette use. According to Robert N. Proctor, author of “everyone knew but no one had proof” :tobacco industry use of medical history expertise in US courts, 1990-2002, the argument placed blame on the consumers not the companies themselves. The companies claimed that, everyone had known there was an issue, but there was not sufficient scientific data to back it up. This most likely had an impact on all people who were smokers, but especially those who were middle aged to elderly. When they first began smoking they were under the impression that it was doing no harm to them, only to find out when it was too late that their health was significantly altered.