1. Case SummaryProvide a brief summary of      what you have learned about the individual reviewed in the case. Include information about the individual      in terms of demographics and general history, and the sources of that      information, and the reason that the individual was referred, and by whom.Summarize any information      you may have about evaluations that have been conducted, including the      results.2. Clinical Impression (Diagnosis)Write the clinical impression in the DSM-5 format:XXX.xx (Yyy.yy) Primary Diagnoses (list in order of salience).(DSM-5 Code is first, as in XXX.xx, and ICD-10 codes next, in parentheses.)OTHER FACTORS:Use the V and Z codes, or simply appropriate descriptors to psychosocial and contextual factors of importance to the diagnostic case. These replace the DSM-IV-TR Axis IV & V used to address these concerns.3. RecommendationsExplain any recommendations for interventions, treatment, and/or disposition.4. QuestionsAddress the specific questions that were asked in the instructions for this assignment.Here is a sample assignment question and an appropriate brief response:Question: Describe what further information you would need to accurately diagnose this case.

 
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Your friend Lydia is having difficulty ”taking in” the information in her history class, so she ask you to use your expertise in psychology to offer some suggestions on how to improve her memory performance.Discuss how attention, deep processing, elaboration and the use of mental imagery can affect the encoding process. Utilize your readings, lecture and powerpoints and examples that you might have to help with your post.please summit a minimum of 250 words and cite your resources, Turnitin will be utilized. Please make sure you write your post in your own words.

 
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Prior to beginning work on this discussion, please read the required articles by Skidmore (2008) and Henrich, Heine, & Norenzayan (2010). Carefully review the PSY635 Week Two Discussion Scenario. Apply the scientific method to the information included within the scenario and develop a null and a research hypothesis based on it. Using the hypotheses you have developed, compare the characteristics of the different experimental research designs discussed in the Skidmore (2008) article and choose the one that is most appropriate to adequately test your hypotheses. Identify potential internal threats to validity and explain how you might mitigate these threats. Apply ethical principles to the proposed research and describe the implications of this type of research in terms of the population(s) and cultural consideration(s) represented in the sample(s) within the scenario.PSY635 Week Two ScenarioThree instructors teach the same online course and have devised an experimental intervention to improve student motivation to actively participate in discussions. The course is a core requirement for all psychology students, and students are assigned to particular sections at random rather than by instructor choice.The average class size for this particular course is 45 students. To get a large enough sample for adequate analysis, the instructors have decided to include two sections for each instructor in the experiment. The first section will serve as the control group (no experimental intervention), and the second section will receive the intervention. Anonymous data about the dependent variable will be pooled for the three sections comprising the control group and the three sections that receive the intervention.The independent variable is the intervention, which may be an incentive such as digital badges or an instructional intervention involving changing the instructions for the guided response. The dependent variable will be the number of response (not initial) posts per student that exceed two lines of text. The researchers have decided to use the Week Four discussion for data collection, reasoning that it may take some time for the intervention to become effective.

 
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Please read, “Introduction: Multiculturalism in psychology and mental health services,” by Smith & Trimble, 2016. Take some notes to get the basic points of the article. After completing the article, answer the following questions using the article, your textbook, and other sources (including personal experience):After reading Smith & Trimble (2016), what is your definition of multiculturalism in psychology/mental health services?Are evidence-based treatments appropriate for diverse clients?In what scenarios might such treatments be appropriate? In what scenarios might such treatments be inappropriate? If inappropriate, in what ways could such interventions prove harmful to clients?Also, do you think popular culture stigmatizes mental illness(es)?  Why or why not?

 
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Final is separated into 2 parts Psy2012 I need no less than a 90%. Opens 7/27Due 7/29 by 11:00pm ESTPart 1-95 questions-Time Limit 150 Minutes 1 time only allowed to takePart 2-Common Course Assessment 25 questions not timedHere is breakdown from professor. I also have attached the full bookModules 1 to 14 related to psychology which should include conceptualization and all mentioned theorists and their theories and any stages (including Freud, Adler, Wundt, Piaget, Selman, Ellis, Rogers, Vygotsky, and Erickson); models as well as approaches of psychology; conditioning; genetics; types of research including hypothesis and theory as well as variables; relationships; types of psychology; the brain and its functions; the nervous system; neurons; endocrine system; heart disease; stress and coping; defense mechanism; types of conflict; sensation and perception; drugs and alcohol; sleep; addiction; psychological disorders; learning; memory; cognition; language; intelligence; problem solving; stages of pregnancy and labor; ethics; morality; empathy; consciousness; emotions; motivation; sexuality; gender; locus of control; personality assessments; DSM; therapy; culture; traits; cognitive dissonance; and attitudes.

 
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Please no plagiarism and make sure you are able to access all resource on your own before you bid. One of the referencesmustcome from Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (2016). You are expected to include at least one scholarly and peer-reviewed resource outside of those provided in the readings for each discussion post. I need this completed by 03/11/18 at 1pm.Journal Assignment: Cultural Self-AssessmentYour cultural views may change as you progress through this course, your degree program, and your career as a counselor. Having an evolving awareness of the cultures you will encounter is an important part of becoming culturally competent.Complete a cultural assessment of yourself using Table 3.1 in the Hays text as a guideline.  Be sure to include all the cultural influences noted in the ADDRESSING format.Describe your culture and explain your worldview and biases based on your cultural self-assessment, and how your worldview and bias may influence your interactions with culturally diverse clients. Then explain one challenge related to your worldview and biases that might influence your work with culturally diverse clients. Pay specific attention to areas in which you have strong opinions. Finally, describe one strategy you might use to address that challenge using the learning resources as a scholarly guide.Required ResourcesReadings· Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (2016). Counseling the culturally diverse: Theory and practice (7th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.o Chapter 4, “The Political and Social Justice Implications of Counseling and Psychotherapy” (pp. 107-144)o Chapter 5, “The Impact of Systemic Oppression: Counselor Credibility and Client Worldviews” (pp. 145-178)o Chapter 6, “Microaggressions in Counseling and Psychotherapy” (pp. 179-212)· Hays, P. A. (2016). Addressing cultural complexities in practice: Assessment, diagnosis, and therapy (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.o Chapter 3, “Doing Your Own Cultural Self-Assessment” (pp. 39-60)Media· Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012a). Emotional roadblocks on the road to cultural competence. Baltimore, MD: Author.Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 12 minutes.In this video, Drs. Derald Wing Sue, Teresa LaFromboise, Marie Miville, and Thomas Parham discuss some of the emotional challenges that come with learning cultural competency.Accessible player  –Downloads– Download Video w/CC Download Audio Download TranscriptOptional Resources· Hays, P. A. (1996). Addressing the complexities of culture and gender in counseling. Journal of Counseling and Development, 74(4), 332–338.��sv��1�Fg�5

 
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Assignment InstructionsFor your Midterm essay exam, you will complete 10 essay questions which focus on the course readings. Midterm essay answers must be attached as a Word document to the appropriate assignment page, not typed into the assignment student comments boxes. In addition to writing a 300 word answer to each essay question with APA formatted citations and references (APA title page and reference page are required. Each question should be answered clearly and numbered) students will answer each question thoroughly and completely, providing examples where required.Answer the questions below in your Midterm exam.1. Describe the process of perception as a series of steps, beginning with the environmental stimulus and culminating in the behavioral responses of perceiving, recognizing, and acting.2. Because the long axons of neurons look like electrical wires, and both neurons and electrical wires conduct electricity, it is tempting to equate the two. Compare and contrast the functioning of axons and electrical wires in terms of their structure and the nature of the electrical signals they conduct.3. What are the two answers (one “simple” and the other “profound”) to the question, “Why is our perception of colors and details worse in dim illumination than in bright illumination?”4. What is color constancy? Describe three factors that help achieve color constancy. What is brightness constancy? Describe the factors that are responsible for brightness constancy. Lastly, compare and contrast color constancy with brightness constancy.5. When you walk from outside, which is illuminated by sunlight, to inside, which is illuminated by “tungsten” illumination, your perception of colors remains fairly constant. But under some illuminations, such as street lights called “sodium vapor” lights that sometimes illuminate highways or parking lots, colors do seem to change. Why do you think color constancy would hold under some illuminations, but not others?6. What is sensory adaptation? How does it occur within the various senses? What function does sensory adaptation serve? Provide a relevant example that illustrates your point.7. What are the characteristics of the energy that we see as visible light? Provide an example illustrating how these characteristics are expressed when someone sees a rainbow. What types of things (situations and/or objects) can interfere with these characteristics?8. How does the eye transduce light energy into a neural message? What is the blind spot in the eye and how does it impact the transduction of light energy?9. How is visual information processed in the brain? What are some things (situations and/or objects) which can impede visual information being processed in the brain? Please include a relevant example to illustrate your answer.10. What theories contribute to our understanding of color vision? Discuss at least two relevant theories of color vision.READINGWEEK-1https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=unWnZvXJH2ohttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R-sVnmmw6WYREADINGIntroductionTopics to be covered include:· Sensation and perception· Sensory processing· Physiology-perception relationship· NeuronsWhat are sensation and perception? This lesson will walk through the process of sensory processing with an overview of the parts of the process you will explore in greater detail in later lessons. The sensation and perception process is a process that involves our physical senses reacting to a stimulus in the environment (like a bee), and moving that information to the brain for analysis based on our own unique bundle of experiences and knowledge. This makes perceptions unique to each person.Visual processes will be introduced as they pertain to sensation and perception. Why is light important in visual processing? This lesson will answer that question and discuss the route sensory information takes in the visual processing systems. One of the main actors in this process is the neuron. By the end of this lesson, you will have a better understanding of what a neuron is and what it does as a messenger, conveying signals to and from the brain.Sensation and PerceptionA girl is out in a field enjoying the warm summer sunshine and beautiful flowers with a toddler. She hears a buzzing sound, and starts to look around to place the source. She is familiar with this sound, and looks for a bee. When she finds it, she realizes it is flying toward her and she begins to run. She has been stung by a bee before, and does not want to feel that pain again. The toddler that is with her, hears the same buzzing and sees the same bee, but does not run. As a matter of fact, the toddler is curious and stands watching until the girl picks him up and moves him to a new location.Why did the toddler have a different reaction to the bee? It has to do with perception, and the cognitive processing that occurs as information from the senses is relayed to the brain for analysis. There is quite a lot of processing that occurs in between hearing the buzzing sound and looking for a bee, and seeing the bee, identifying what it is, and moving away from it.PRIOR KNOWLEDGE CHANGES PERCEPTIONIf the information relayed to the brain matches information previously stored through acquired knowledge and experience, the brain perceives this sensory information based on what is previously stored. The toddler did not have information stored on what bees do, so she was not afraid. The girl, on the other hand, has been stung before, and has previously stored knowledge about bees. Her knowledge led to her perception of the situation. This example shows the interaction of sensation and perception.Sensation is the process of gathering and transmitting information from the five senses: sight, hearing, taste, smell and touch. Sensation acts as a conveyor of information, but does not process the information (Goldstein & Brockmole, 2017). The information from the senses is processed by the brain as it interprets the information based on knowledge previously stored. This cognitive process is called perception (Goldstein & Brockmole, 2017). In this example, sensation occurs as the girl hears a buzzing sound and sees the bee. The information is then sent to the brain, where it is compared to information already stored in memory systems to create perception.Processing Sensory Information‹3/7 ›· Bottom-up and Top-down ProcessingFrom the beginning, the girl heard a buzzing sound. This information was relayed to the brain. The brain prompted the visual senses to search for the sound. The eyes registered the bee and sent that information to the brain. This time the brain sent the command to move away from the area. The command was based on information stored in the girl’s memory, and experiences she had previously had with a bee. The information that was relayed from the senses to the brain is called bottom-up processing (Goldstein & Brockmole, 2017). The information relayed from the brain to the rest of the body, and the recognition and review of knowledge is called top-down processing (Goldstein & Brockmole, 2017). One easy way to remember this is to think about the location of the brain, and most of the senses. Most of the senses are below the brain, so sending information to the brain would be an uphill process. The brain sits at the top of the body, for the most part, so information used by the brain would be top-down.Vision‹1/3 ›·The sense most people tend to rely on first is vision. The brain interprets the wavelength of light and interprets it as color. Different wavelengths of visible light represent different colors (Griggs, 2016). Shorter wavelengths appearing as blueish colors, mid-length waves appear greenish, and longer waves appear as red, orange and yellow hues (Goldstein & Brockmole, 2017). The wavelength determines color and the amplitude determines the intensity (Griggs, 2016). The wavelength is measured as the distance between wave crests and amplitude is measured by the height of each crest (Griggs, 2016). The number of waves that pass in one second in the frequency.Visible light is the range of electromagnetic radiation that humans can see, from about 400 to 700 nanometers of wavelengths. The rest of the electromagnetic spectrum is invisible to the human eye (Goldstein & Brockmole, 2017).Neurons·MESSAGE TRANSPORTERS·PARTS OF A NEURON·SPECIALIZATION OF NEURONS· HOW A MESSAGE TRAVELSLet us look at how the message travels through a neuron. The dendrites receive the message from other neurons. They then send the information to the soma. The soma receives the messages from the other neurons and moves them to the axon. The axon carries a message from the soma to the terminal branches that will move the message on to the next neuron in the communication network. The message moves down the axon through an electrical current. The message moving through the axon is called the action potential (Goldstein & Brockmole, 2017).Action PotentialWhen a message travels through a neuron it is based on an electrical charge. When an axon is at rest, meaning a message is not traveling through it, the electric charge inside the axon is more negative than positive. This is called resting potential. When a signal for a new message occurs, the charge inside the axon reverses to a positive electrical charge. This signal and the change in electrical charge is the action potential. Once the signal passes the axon and moves to the terminal branches, the charge inside the axon returns to a negative status and as long as a new signal is not coming through, the axon returns to resting potential (Goldstein & Brockmole, 2017). An action potential response is an all or nothing response. Once it begins it does not stop until the message signal has moved through the axon.The electrical charge of the signal would remain the same size throughout its passage in the axon). This is called a propagated response. There is a limit to how many responses can move through the axon during a period of time. There is an interval between signals, which is called a refractory period (Goldstein & Brockmole, 2017).NeurotransmittersNow that we have talked about what happens in a neuron as the signal passes from the dendrites to the terminal branches, let’s talk about what happens as the signal passes from one neuron to the next. Neurons do not touch each other. There is a small gap between each neuron called the synapse, or synaptic gap. As you can imagine, this gap is extremely small. Yet, the charge does need to pass through this gap to get to the next neuron. This is where chemical action comes into play. When an electric signal reaches the end of a terminal branch, a chemical process occurs that allows the signal to move across the synapse using neurotransmitters (Goldstein & Brockmole, 2017).Neurotransmitters are used to transport the signal from the terminal branches through the synapse and docking on the next neuron at the dendrites. As you can see, we have both an electrical action within the neuron, and a chemical reaction to cross from one neuron to the next.Neurotransmitters, like neurons themselves, are very numerous and very specific. Certain neurotransmitters are used to send certain messages across the gap. They come in different shapes and when they move across the synapse to the next neuron they fit in to specific shapes docks on the next neuron on its receptor site (Goldstein & Brockmole, 2017). This helps to maintain the specialization of the message. For example, the message from the girl’s ears about the buzzing would likely have used a different neurotransmitter than a message about the color of a flower. When the signal from the transmitter encounters the correct receptor site, it sets off the electrical signal that again runs through the neuron starting with the dendrite and moving through the neuron to terminal branch. The signal then releases the same type of neurotransmitter as it did in the previous neuron to cross the synapse to the next neuron in the network.There are two different types of responses to receptor sites based on the type of neurotransmitter released, and the nature of the receptor site targeted by it. The two responses are excitatory and inhibitory. The excitatory response occurs as the inside of the neuron becomes more positive, ultimately triggering action potential. This process is called depolarization, which occurs as the change in the charge moves from very negative to positive. The excitatory response triggers increasing rates of nerve firing (Goldstein & Brockmole, 2017).Think about what might happen if the girl moves away from the bee and it continues to follow her. Her reaction would become more excited, and the nerve firing would reflect this. Once the bee moves off in a different direction, the girl would calm down, and the nerve firing would be greatly reduced. As the girl calms down and stands still, the messages would be reduced. An inhibitory response would occur as the inside of the neuron becomes more negative, decreasing the likelihood of an action potential (Goldstein & Brockmole, 2017). Thus, information is processed as it travels through the neurons. When the information is urgent, like the bee chasing the girl, the neurons move with urgency. When the bee is gone and girl calms down, the neurons reduce the need for excitement and reaction.Neural Convergence· From the lens, the light reaches the retina, which is the light-sensitive part of the eye that engages in the transduction process for vision. The retina has three layers of cells: ganglion, bipolar and receptor cells. The ganglion cells receive the light waves first, passing them through to the bipolar cells, and then finally to the receptor cells. The receptor cells consist of rods and cones. The rods are responsible for dim light and colorless vision, while the cones are responsible for brighter light and color (Griggs, 2016). There are many more rod cells than cone cells. Remarkably varied, rods and cones are distributed differently over the surface of the retina. The fovea is where our vision is best and we only have cones. The peripheral retina is the part of the retina outside of the fovea area and contains both cones and rods.The outer segments of the rod and cones contain light-sensitive chemicals called visual pigments that react to light and trigger electrical signals (Goldstein & Brockmole, 2017). These signals emerge from the back of the eye through the optic nerve (Goldstein & Brockmole, 2017). The information is then passed to the optic nerve via the ganglion cells where it begins processing in the brain (Griggs, 2016).Referring back to the example of the girl seeing the bee; light enters the outermost layer, the cornea, then passes through to her pupil, the opening at the center of the iris, the lens enables her to focus on the bee from a distance as it flies closer to her (Goldstein & Brockmole, 2017). Sending electrical “messages,” the girl’s retina translates light into nerve signals allowing her to detect the colors of the bee, yellow and black. Located in the back of the retina are her visual receptors, the cones allow the girl to see the details and colors of the bee, while the rods, which are far more numerous than cones, do not play a significant role in seeing the bee because it is daylight.Neurons· MESSAGE TRANSPORTERS·PARTS OF A NEURON·SPECIALIZATION OF NEURONS·HOW A MESSAGE TRAVELSWe have a basic understanding of visual and auditory information processes, but what transports the message from the sensory organs to the brain and from the brain to the rest of the body? Signals are sent via neurons. Neurons are cells capable of transmitting information. Each neuron is specialized to transmit certain types of information. There are vast networks of complex circuits made up of billions of neurons in thousands of neuron networks throughout the body. Neurons communicate with other neurons with like specializations. Thus, neurons that specialize in identifying what a sound is through vision would communicate with each other. As you can imagine, the messages travel through the sensory organs and brain systems very quickly. If you think about how long it would take for a girl to hear buzzing, then look for the bee, identify the bee and move away, you can see how quickly the numerous neural messages move.· Reception and TransductionIn this example, the visual receptors respond to the light reflected from the bee to the girl’s eyes (Goldstein & Brockmole, 2017). Each sense has sensory receptors, which are cells that respond to the different types of energy that transmit information in the environment, like the sound and light waves from the bee. The auditory receptors were also in effect, because the girl’s ears picked up the sound of the buzzing before the girl saw the bee. With visual receptors, light energy is transformed into electrical energy as the visual pigments react to the light. This process is called transduction. Transduction occurs as information from the senses is translated into a message sent to the brain. The message is sent via specialized neural networks that transmit the sensory information from the sensory receptors (Goldstein & Brockmole, 2017). Information that is transmitted through the neural networks is coded, or converted to a form of information that travels the neurons to the brain. While the signals change as they move from the initial reception of auditory and visual sensory stimuli, the electrical signals ultimately become a conscious experience based on the perception of the bee in the recognition of what it is (Goldstein & Brockmole, 2017). Recognition is based on the meaning that the girl had assigned to a bee through her previous knowledge and experiences. That meaning is what prompted the behavioral response to flee.Vision‹2/3 ›·Your eyes are made up of different interworking parts. Light enters through the cornea, which is located at the front of the eye (Griggs, 2016). The cornea begins the process as it starts to bend the light waves that then passes through to the pupil. The pupil is a tiny hole that lets light through. It is controlled by the iris, which gives the eye its color and regulates the size of the pupil (Griggs, 2016). The iris adjusts the amount of light that enters the eye, then the light moves through a transparent lens, which adjusts the focus of the images (Griggs, 2016). The lens is flexible and can change in shape to take in either distant or close images. This ability to change in shape to fit the distance of images is called accommodation (Griggs, 2016). The cornea and lens together determine the eye’s focusing power. About two-thirds of light is reflected by the cornea, while the remaining third passes to the lens. The lens can change its shape in order to focus the light from objects at different distances, while the cornea remains fixed in place (Goldstein & Brockmole, 2017).Neurons·MESSAGE TRANSPORTERS· PARTS OF A NEURON·SPECIALIZATION OF NEURONS·HOW A MESSAGE TRAVELSNeurons consist of different parts responsible for electrically transmitting the message through each neuron:· The dendrites are the branchlike structures that first receive information.· The soma, or cell body, maintains the health and metabolism of the cell.· The nucleus resides within the soma, and is responsible for making the proteins that maintain cell function. The nucleus also houses the DNA for the cell.· The axon is the long nerve fiber that is connected to the soma, and transmits the information that is passed on from the soma.· The terminal branch is at the end of each neuron. It is the launching place of the information from that neuron across the synapse to the next neuron.· The synapse is the very small gap between each neuron.· Reception and TransductionIn this example, the visual receptors respond to the light reflected from the bee to the girl’s eyes (Goldstein & Brockmole, 2017). Each sense has sensory receptors, which are cells that respond to the different types of energy that transmit information in the environment, like the sound and light waves from the bee. The auditory receptors were also in effect, because the girl’s ears picked up the sound of the buzzing before the girl saw the bee. With visual receptors, light energy is transformed into electrical energy as the visual pigments react to the light. This process is called transduction. Transduction occurs as information from the senses is translated into a message sent to the brain. The message is sent via specialized neural networks that transmit the sensory information from the sensory receptors (Goldstein & Brockmole, 2017). Information that is transmitted through the neural networks is coded, or converted to a form of information that travels the neurons to the brain. While the signals change as they move from the initial reception of auditory and visual sensory stimuli, the electrical signals ultimately become a conscious experience based on the perception of the bee in the recognition of what it is (Goldstein & Brockmole, 2017). Recognition is based on the meaning that the girl had assigned to a bee through her previous knowledge and experiences. That meaning is what prompted the behavioral response to flee.Vision‹2/3 ›·Your eyes are made up of different interworking parts. Light enters through the cornea, which is located at the front of the eye (Griggs, 2016). The cornea begins the process as it starts to bend the light waves that then passes through to the pupil. The pupil is a tiny hole that lets light through. It is controlled by the iris, which gives the eye its color and regulates the size of the pupil (Griggs, 2016). The iris adjusts the amount of light that enters the eye, then the light moves through a transparent lens, which adjusts the focus of the images (Griggs, 2016). The lens is flexible and can change in shape to take in either distant or close images. This ability to change in shape to fit the distance of images is called accommodation (Griggs, 2016). The cornea and lens together determine the eye’s focusing power. About two-thirds of light is reflected by the cornea, while the remaining third passes to the lens. The lens can change its shape in order to focus the light from objects at different distances, while the cornea remains fixed in place (Goldstein & Brockmole, 2017).Neurons·MESSAGE TRANSPORTERS· PARTS OF A NEURON·SPECIALIZATION OF NEURONS·HOW A MESSAGE TRAVELSNeurons consist of different parts responsible for electrically transmitting the message through each neuron:· The dendrites are the branchlike structures that first receive information.· The soma, or cell body, maintains the health and metabolism of the cell.· The nucleus resides within the soma, and is responsible for making the proteins that maintain cell function. The nucleus also houses the DNA for the cell.· The axon is the long nerve fiber that is connected to the soma, and transmits the information that is passed on from the soma.· The terminal branch is at the end of each neuron. It is the launching place of the information from that neuron across the synapse to the next neuron.· The synapse is the very small gap between each neuron.Now that we have some background on the neuron as a single functioning unit and how signals travel through individually, it is time to look at neurons collectively as they work in the retina. Five different types of neurons are layered together into interconnected neural circuits within the retina. As we discussed earlier, information travels from receptor cells to bipolar cells to ganglion cells. There are two other types of neurons that are part of the connections in the retina: the horizontal cells that send signals between receptor neurons, and amacrine cells that pass signals between the bipolar and ganglion cells. Neural convergence, or convergence occurs when multiple neurons synapse onto one neuron. In the retina, there are 126 million receptor cells and 1 million ganglion cells, which means multiple receptor cells will send signals to the same ganglion cell. There are 120 million rods and 6 million cones in the retina, so again, there is a difference in the number of cells sending information to the ganglion cells. Based on these numbers, we can see that more rods will send signals to ganglion cells than cones. The greater convergence of rods results in more sensitivity than cones, and better detail vision in cones than rods (Goldstein & Brockmole, 2017).As we have just seen, rods are more sensitive than cones. In the daylight, the intensity of light is much greater than at night, so there are many photons hitting the retina. At night or in dim light, the intensity of light is low, meaning far fewer photons reach the retina. This is why we need lots more rods than cones. When you are walking in dim light, you are using your rods to detect the objects you are looking at. So, less light is needed by the rods to identify the stimuli in your presence. Cones have better visual acuity, or ability to distinguish details (Goldstein & Brockmole, 2017). This visual acuity would have been beneficial to the girl as she looked for a small bee in a large field of flowers.ConclusionLet’s revisit the girl and her bee. We have just learned how much goes into hearing buzzing, looking for the sound, seeing a bee, recognizing the bee and remembering what a bee does and moving away from the bee. Try an experiment: listen for a sound, turn toward the sound, identify it and then wave your hand. How long did it take you? Did it seem like any time passed at all? Yet, quite a bit occurred in that seemingly infinitesimal period of time. The sound was transmitted through the auditory system via neural networks, transduced, processed by the brain. A message was then sent from the brain through motor neurons to have the head move to find the source of the sound. The visual systems picked up the light reflection of the bee, sent it through the optical systems, transduced it and moved it to the brains systems for processing. The brain then sent the message to motor neurons to move. Thousands of neurons were activated to send these messages. All of this happened in a period of time we would experience as instant.In our next lesson we will look at the trip the message takes through the nervous system in more detail.SourcesCarlson, N. R., Miller, H. L., Heth, D. S., Donahoe, J. W., & Martin, G. N. (2010). Psychology: The science of behavior (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Goldstein, E. B. & Brockmole, J. R. (2017). Sensation and perception (10th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage.Griggs, R. A. (2016). Psychology: A concise introduction (5th ed.). New York, NY: Worth Publishers.Image Citations”A bee on a flower ” by https://pixabay.com/en/bee-lavender-insect-nature-yellow-1040521/.”A hearing test: a girl has on headphones and her eyes closed as a technician changes which ear receives the sound” by 36420083.”Visible spectrum of light” by 20609699.”Close up of an eye ” by https://pixabay.com/en/eye-iris-algae-macro-blur-natural-2340806/.”Alt text: Anatomy of the eye, as described in this section of the lesson, with a ray of light being focused on the fovea” by https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cataracts.png.”Anatomy of the ear, as described in this section of the lesson” by 59184884″Anatomy of a neuron, as described in this section of the lesson” by 56921155″A diagram that shows messages traveling across the synapse between two nerves” by https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synapse#/media/File:Chemical_synapse_schema_cropped.jpg.”Anatomy of the ear, as described in this section of the lesson” by https://pixabay.com/en/eye-diagram-eyeball-body-pupil-39998/.Edit question’s bodyWEEK 2https://youtu.be/bk0raUXwCjcREADINGIntroductionTopics to be covered include:The      components of sound and how they interactThe      function of the cochleaLocalization      of soundIn this lesson, we will learn more about sound and the auditory systems that sound waves pass through as they are transmuted to signals the brain can understand. Sound travels as vibrations through the outer and middle ears before it is transmuted to electrical signals in the inner ear. We will also look at how we are able to identify where a sound came from, and how sound hits each of our ears.How We Rely on SoundFor many, sight is the first sense we rely on. We see something and go by what we see. Yet, we cannot always see something, and what we perceive based on our sight is not always accurate. So, which sense do we rely on more than we realize? We can hear in the dark, and while we can be fooled by sounds, we might be a little more cautious with what we hear as opposed to what we see. We use our hearing to listen to and identify different sounds. Some sounds are enjoyable, and others might be a little too loud, or have an unpleasant sound, like a siren or a child playing the same note on a recorder for the fiftieth time trying to get it just right.Yet, let’s look at an example that will help us explain sound and auditory perception. We are at a concert for second grade children playing their recorders, the plastic flute-like instruments elementary children often learn to play notes on. A couple of children seem to be doing better than others, and have solo parts. Parents scramble to record their children and happily move to the sounds that fill the auditorium. Of course, some visitors might not conclude that the recorders are quite as melodious as they listen to the concert. In each case, pressure changes in the air create the stimulus for hearing, similar to how light is processed by visual senses. This change in air pressure activates the auditory senses. The information travels through the outer ear to the middle ear, then to the inner ear. The information is processed and sent through brains systems to create a perceptual experience. We have systems that help us determine where the sound comes from, based on how quickly it hits an ear, and which ear it hits first. In some ways, this information is more reliable than visual senses.Physical and Perceptual Definitions of SoundThis video shows how sounds are produced and how you hear them: What is Sound?Open file: Transcript ‹1/5 ›The      StimulusLike vision, sound begins with a distal stimulus. In our example,      the distal stimulus would be the sound of the recorder. The vibration of      the recorder causes changes in the air that trigger auditory organs to      process this representation of sound and send it to the brain. This sound      is physically based on the pressure changes that occur as the sound is      emitted from the distal stimulus (Goldstein & Brockmole, 2017). The      sound is also perceptually based on our experience– we perceive the      recorder sound as wonderful (if you are mom), or as perhaps a little      annoying (if you are anyone other than mom). So, we have the recorder      vibrating with a frequency of 1,000 Hertz (Hz), which is the physical      stimulus, and the experience of sound based on your enjoyment of the recorder      concert (Goldstein & Brockmole, 2017).Loudness and PitchThe frequency of sound is on the horizontal axis; the dB levels at which we can hear each frequency is on the vertical axis.LOUDNESSPITCHTIMBREThe amplitude of a sound is expressed in dB. The perceptual aspect of the sound stimulus loudness is related to the level of an auditory stimulus. The higher the dB the louder we perceive a sound, but this varies with the frequency of the sound. The audibility curve indicates the range of frequencies we can hear. Underneath the audibility curve we would not be able to hear talk, but above the curve we can hear tones. This area above the curve is called the auditory response area. The area above the upper range of the audibility curve is the threshold of feeling, which is an area where the amplitudes are so high that we can feel them, and they would likely cause us pain, but we wouldn’t necessarily hear them (Goldstein & Brockmole, 2017). How many of you have ever heard of a dog whistle? The amplitude of a dog whistle is so high that we, as humans, cannot hear it but dogs can. Dogs can hear frequencies higher in the human audibility curve. As you get older, the range of frequencies you can hear shrinks. You can test your hearing at: Hearing Test. (transcript not yet available)The video plays sounds of the frequency indicated on the screen. Watch the video until you can hear the sound. That is the lower threshold of your hearing. Towards

 
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Assessment DescriptionCompare the following terms:test-retest reliability with inter-rater reliability.content validity with both predictive validity and construct validity.internal validity with external validity.Can a test be reliable without being valid? Can a test be valid without being reliable? Explain.

 
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Thinking back on the course, pick three concepts, topics, or theories that are important for counseling and human services professionals to be knowledgeable about when working with clients. Please discuss in detail why those concepts, topics, or theories are important to a counseling and human services professional and be sure to use scholarly sources to support your statements. For example, why would Erikson’s stage of Identity Development versus Role Confusion be important to a counseling and human services professional who works with a teenager who is exploring their sexuality? Please think about the diverse clients a counseling and human services professional serves to help develop appropriate concepts, topics, or theories. Please do not include personal experiences or personal examples, this is a research paper.This essay paper should consist of at least 5 full pages. Your paper must be double spaced with size 12 Times New Roman font and 1 inch margins on all sides. You will need a title page, body (at least 5 full pages), and reference section all in APA style. Please use complete sentences, appropriate grammar, spelling, and references. You will also be required to use in-text references in your work in accordance with APA style to avoid plagiarism. Information to help with your writing is provided under the APA resources section of the course information tab.For this paper, you are required to provide 3 scholarly sources to support your claims that are not provided as part of this course. Please be sure to avoid using internet sources such as Wikipedia or other web-based resources that do not have a strong academic backing. You will also be required to use in-text references in your work in accordance with APA style to avoid plagiarism. Plagiarism detection software will be used to scan each paper. Refer to the writing rubric for a guideline as to how your paper will be graded. Students are strongly encouraged to use the University Learning Center ([email protected]) for assistance with all assignments as APA style is historically a challenge for most writers. A Microsoft WORD format file of your paper (no PDF papers accepted), should be submitted via the assignment link in Blackboard.HSV 505 Reading Assignments: embedded in each unit (units 1-8). The readings will be digital throughout the module.

 
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Short Paper: Personality Assessment AssignmentThis short paper will challenge you to apply what you have learned in this course and assess your own personality using three different theoretical approaches. Describe how each of these approaches would describe and explain your personality, using specific examples about your personality and key concepts from the theories. This paper has you evaluate several different theories with something you are very familiar with—your own personality.To complete this assignment, review the Module Six Short Paper Guidelines and Rubric document.

 
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