Assignment:

Based on what you have learned in this week’s readings and additional resources, create a PowerPoint presentation or Prezi that addresses each of the following points/questions.

Be sure to completely answer all of the prompts for each bullet point. Use clear headings that allow your professor to know which bullet you are addressing on the slides in your presentation. Support your content with at least five (5) citations throughout your presentation. Make sure to reference the citations using the APA writing style for the presentation. Include a reference slide at the end. Follow best practices for PowerPoint and Prezi presentations related to test size, color, images, effects, wordiness, and multimedia enhancements.

  1. Title slide (1 slide)
  2. Discuss historical views of childhood and the modern study of child development (5-7 slides)
  3. Describe developmental processes, periods, and issues (5-7 slides)
  4. Theories of Child Development (5-7 slides)
  5. Describe the challenges in Child Development research (3-5 slides)
  6. References (1 slide)

Read

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    CHILD DEVELOPMENT

    Thirteenth Edition

    JOHN W. SANTROCK University of Texas at Dallas

    TM

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    TM

    Published by McGraw-Hill, an imprint of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020. Copyright © 2011, 2009, 2007, 2004, 2001, 1996, 1992, 1989, 1987, 1982. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning.

    This book is printed on acid-free paper.

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 QDQ/QDQ 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

    ISBN: 978-0-07-353208-0 MHID: 0-07-353208-8

    Vice President Editorial: Michael Ryan Publisher: Mike Sugarman Senior Sponsoring Editor: Allison McNamara Executive Marketing Manager: Julia Flohr Marketing Manager: Yasuko Okada Director of Development: Dawn Groundwater Senior Developmental Editor: Cara Labell Senior Project Manager: Holly Irish Production Service: Aaron Downey, Matrix Productions Manuscript Editor: Janet Tilden Design Manager: Laurie Entringer Text Designer: Pam Verros Cover Designer: Laurie Entringer Art Manager: Robin Mouat Buyer II: Tandra Jorgensen Composition: 9.5/12 Meridien Roman by Aptara®, Inc. Printing: 45# Pub Matte, Quad/Graphics, Dubuque, IA

    Credits: The credits section for this book begins on page 573 and is considered an extension of the copyright page.

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Santrock, John W. Child development : an introduction / John Santrock. — 13th ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-07-353208-0 (hardback) 1. Child development. 2. Child psychology. I. Title. RJ131.S264 2010 618.92—dc22 2010036055

    The Internet addresses listed in the text were accurate at the time of publication. The inclusion of a Web site does not indicate an endorsement by the authors or McGraw-Hill, and McGraw-Hill does not guarantee the accuracy of the information presented at these sites.

    www.mhhe.com

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    With special appreciation to my wife, Mary Jo; my children, Tracy and Jennifer;

    and my grandchildren, Jordan, Alex, and Luke

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    iv

    about the author John W. Santrock

    John Santrock received his Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota in 1973.

    He taught at the University of Charleston and the University of Georgia

    before joining the program in Psychology and Human Development at the

    University of Texas at Dallas, where he currently teaches a number of under-

    graduate courses.

    John has been a member of the edi torial boards of

    Child Development and Developmental Psychology. His research

    on father custody is widely cited and used in expert wit-

    ness testimony to promote fl exibility and alternative con-

    siderations in custody disputes. John also has authored

    these exceptional McGraw-Hill texts: Psychology (7th edi-

    tion), Children (11th edition), Adolescence (13th edition),

    Life-Span Development (13th edition), and Educational

    Psychology (5th edition).

    For many years John was involved in tennis as a

    player, a teaching professional, and a coach of profes-

    sional tennis players. He has been married for more than

    35 years to his wife, Mary Jo, who is a Realtor. He has

    two daughters—Tracy, who also is a Realtor, and Jennifer, who is a medical

    sales specialist He has one granddaughter, Jordan, age 19, and two grandsons,

    Alex, age 6, and Luke, age 4. In the last decade, John also has spent time

    painting expressionist art.

    John Santrock (center) teaching an undergraduate psychology course.

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    v

    SECTION 1 THE NATURE OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT 2 1 Introduction 4

    SECTION 2 BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES, PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT, AND PERCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT 48 2 Biological Beginnings 50 3 Prenatal Development and Birth 76 4 Physical Development and Health 105 5 Motor, Sensory, and Perceptual Development 141

    SECTION 3 COGNITION AND LANGUAGE 168 6 Cognitive Developmental Approaches 170 7 Information Processing 199 8 Intelligence 233 9 Language Development 258

    SECTION 4 SOCIOEMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT 286 10 Emotional Development 288 11 The Self and Identity 322 12 Gender 344 13 Moral Development 364

    SECTION 5 SOCIAL CONTEXTS OF DEVELOPMENT 392 14 Families 394 15 Peers 426 16 Schools and Achievement 452 17 Culture and Diversity 483

    brief contents

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    vi

    contents

    C H A P T E R 1

    Introduction 4 Child Development—Yesterday and Today 6

    Historical Views of Childhood 6

    The Modern Study of Child Development 7

    Caring for Children 8 Improving the Lives of Children 8

    CONNECTING WITH CAREERS Luis Vargas, Clinical Child Psychologist 9

    Resilience, Social Policy, and Children’s

    Development 11

    CONNECTING WITH DIVERSITY Gender, Families, and Children’s Development 12

    Developmental Processes, Periods, and Issues 14 Biological, Cognitive, and Socioemotional

    Processes 15

    Periods of Development 16

    Issues in Development 17

    The Science of Child Development 20 The Importance of Research 20

    Theories of Child Development 20

    CARING CONNECTIONS Strategies for Parenting, Educating, and Interacting with Children Based on Erikson’s Theory 23

    Research Methods for Collecting Data 30

    Research Designs 33

    CONNECTING THROUGH RESEARCH Where Is Child Development Research Published? 37

    Challenges in Child Development

    Research 38

    CONNECTING WITH CAREERS Pam Reid, Educational and Developmental Psychologist 39

    Reach Your Learning Goals 41

    Appendix Careers in Child Development 44

    S E C T I O N 1 THE NATURE OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT 2

    C H A P T E R 2

    Biological Beginnings 50 IMAGES OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT The Stories

    of the Jim and Jim Twins 51

    The Evolutionary Perspective 52 Natural Selection and Adaptive

    Behavior 52

    Evolutionary Psychology 53

    Genetic Foundations of Development 54 The Collaborative Gene 55

    Genes and Chromosomes 56

    Genetic Principles 58

    Chromosomal and Gene-Linked

    Abnormalities 59

    CONNECTING WITH CAREERS Holly Ishmael, Genetic Counselor 62

    Reproductive Challenges and Choices 63 Prenatal Diagnostic Tests 63

    Infertility and Reproductive Technology 64

    Adoption 65

    CONNECTING THROUGH RESEARCH Do Children Conceived Through In Vitro Fertilization Show Signifi cantly Diff erent Outcomes in Adolescence? 65

    CONNECTING WITH DIVERSITY The Increased Diversity of Adopted Children and Adoptive Parents 66

    CARING CONNECTIONS Parenting Adopted Children 67

    S E C T I O N 2 BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES, PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT, AND PERCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT 48

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    Contents vii

    Heredity and Environment Interaction: The Nature-Nurture Debate 68

    Behavior Genetics 69

    Heredity-Environment Correlations 69

    Shared and Nonshared Environmental

    Experiences 70

    The Epigenetic View and Gene 3 Environment

    (G 3 E) Interaction 71

    Conclusions About Heredity-Environment

    Interaction 72

    Reach Your Learning Goals 73

    C H A P T E R 3

    Prenatal Development and Birth 76

    IMAGES OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT The Story of Mr. Littles 77

    Prenatal Development 78 The Course of Prenatal Development 78

    Teratology and Hazards to Prenatal

    Development 82

    Prenatal Care 89

    Normal Prenatal Development 90

    Birth 90 The Birth Process 91

    CONNECTING WITH CAREERS Linda Pugh, Perinatal Nurse 93

    CARING CONNECTIONS From Waterbirth to Music Therapy 93

    Assessing the Newborn 94

    Preterm and Low Birth Weight Infants 96

    CONNECTING WITH DIVERSITY Cross-Cultural Variations in the Incidence and Causes of Low Birth Weight 97

    CONNECTING THROUGH RESEARCH How Does Massage Therapy Aff ect the Mood and Behavior of Babies? 98

    The Postpartum Period 99 Physical Adjustments 100

    Emotional and Psychological

    Adjustments 100

    CONNECTING WITH CAREERS Diane Sanford, Clinical Psychologist and Postpartum Expert 101

    Bonding 102

    Reach Your Learning Goals 103

    C H A P T E R 4

    Physical Development and Health 105

    IMAGES OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT The Story of Angie and Her Weight 106

    Body Growth and Change 107 Patterns of Growth 107

    Infancy and Childhood 108

    Adolescence 109

    The Brain 113 Brain Physiology 114

    Infancy 115

    Childhood 118

    Adolescence 119

    Sleep 120 Infancy 120

    Childhood 123

    Adolescence 123

    Health 124 Illness and Injuries Among

    Children 125

    Nutrition and Eating Behavior 127

    CONNECTING WITH DIVERSITY The Stories of Latonya and Ramona: Breast and Bottle Feeding in Africa 130

    CARING CONNECTIONS Improving the Nutrition of Infants and Young Children Living in Low-Income Families 132

    CONNECTING WITH CAREERS T. Berry Brazelton, Pediatrician 133

    CONNECTING WITH CAREERS Barbara Deloin, Pediatric Nurse 135

    Exercise 135

    CONNECTING THROUGH RESEARCH Are Preschool Children Getting Enough Physical Activity? 137

    Reach Your Learning Goals 138

    C H A P T E R 5

    Motor, Sensory, and Perceptual Development 141

    IMAGES OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT The Stories of Stevie Wonder and Andrea Bocelli 142

    Motor Development 143 The Dynamic Systems View 143

    Refl exes 144

    Gross Motor Skills 146

    CONNECTING WITH DIVERSITY Cultural Variations in Guiding Infants’ Motor Development 149

    CARING CONNECTIONS Parents, Coaches, and Children’s Sports 151

    Fine Motor Skills 152

    Sensory and Perceptual Development 153 What Are Sensation and Perception? 154

    The Ecological View 154

    CONNECTING THROUGH RESEARCH How Can We Study Newborns’ Perception? 155

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    viii Contents

    Visual Perception 157

    Other Senses 160

    Intermodal Perception 162

    Nature, Nurture, and Perceptual

    Development 163

    Perceptual-Motor Coupling 164

    Reach Your Learning Goals 165

    C H A P T E R 6

    Cognitive Developmental Approaches 170

    IMAGES OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT The Stories of Laurent, Lucienne, and Jacqueline 171

    Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development 172 Processes of Development 172

    Sensorimotor Stage 173

    CONNECTING THROUGH RESEARCH How Do Researchers Determine Infants’ Understanding of Object Permanence and Causality? 177

    Preoperational Stage 180

    Concrete Operational Stage 183

    Formal Operational Stage 185

    Applying and Evaluating Piaget’s Theory 187 Piaget and Education 187

    Evaluating Piaget’s Theory 188

    Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive Development 190 The Zone of Proximal Development 190

    Scaffolding 191

 
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