Analytical essay writing is understood as a research method that allows you to study specific parts of an object. Besides, analytical essays do analyze a specific problem in a topic, that is, consider the problem itself and identify patterns in it. The object of analysis can be a well-known or little-studied scientific phenomenon, scientific or artistic work, a historical event, a social problem, or something else.

Analytical Essay Topic Selection and Object Of Study

The content of the analytical essay will largely depend on what is chosen as the object for analysis. So, when considering a scientific work (dissertation, thesis, scientific article), an essay can be devoted to the study of the reliability of the study, its potential, or the analysis of the conclusions obtained in it. When considering a work of art, the artistic techniques of the author or the problems raised in the book can be analyzed. For this reason, it is very important to accurately determine the topic and object of study.

If the teacher gave you a too broad topic or provided you with the opportunity to choose the topic of the essay yourself, we recommend dwelling on one small question that can be considered on several pages. To help you, the material on choosing an essay topic.

Working with Analytical Essay Literature

An analytical essay is too short to include many quotations and refer to different authors, as is done in abstracts and similar works. And yet it must contain links to sources. This eing an analysis of scientific work, then one can refer to authoritative scientists and their works. In the case of compiling an analytical essay on a book or film, such sources can be reputable publications, writers, film critics, etc. Here, one need to properly examine not only the object of analysis itself, but also what society says about it. With quotes, your essay will be complete and more detailed, which always has a stronger effect on the reader.

When writing an analytical essay, keep in mind that large quotations are not welcome even in voluminous works such as thesis. Therefore, find short and succinct statements and rewrite them carefully before you start writing an essay. Also remember that you need to write out the details of each book or article that you refer to in the essay.

Preparing a Plan

The outline is not a required element of the essay and will not be included in it, but its presence will greatly facilitate the process of writing an essay.

The General Structure of an Analytical Essay Outline is as Follows:

  • Introductory part;
  • Main part:
  • Thesis, analysis, argument;
  • Thesis, analysis, argument;
  • Thesis, analysis, argument;
  • Final part.

Fill in this framework with specific data, writing in the water section the main statement of your work (thesis) that you will be proving. Also write out the points and arguments for the main part. Now you just have to describe in detail each pair of thesis-argument, analyze it and add interesting details (statistics, history, describe an observation, etc.).

Working with Analytical Essay Text

In the introduction of the essay, you need to indicate the object of analysis and your main thesis on the topic of work. For example, if your essay focuses on the impact of computer science on student achievement, your thesis may be that computer science is associated with lower student achievement. It is this statement that you have to prove in the main part with the help of a number of arguments.

In the main part, you must first present the strongest thesis confirming the main thesis, then analyze and argue your statement. For example, in the example of computer science, one of the theses may be that computer science reduces the student’s interest in real life, including study. You analyze how exactly this happens, and provide proof of the results of research on this issue by any company.

Due to this, moving into several statement, one will gradually reveal the topic of the essay.  Not forgetting that the thesis should not have repetition in the meaning and should reveal your main statement.

Finally, go back to the key point and describe it more fully, based on what you proved in the main part. Do not forget that you are not writing a rigorous scientific work, so you need to finish your essay effectively.

Preparing an Analytical Essay For Delivery

When the text is ready, do not be lazy to study the rules for preparing an essay, proofread it for errors and inaccuracies, as well as correctly format and print. Many people get their works back precisely because they are not designed in the way that university manuals or state standards require. The presence of a large number of mistakes can also play against you, so if you have low literacy, seek help from those who are competent in this.

By following all the rules for writing and formatting an analytical essay, you will not only be able to get a high mark, but also gain invaluable experience in preparing works of this type.

 

 
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The research hypothesis in thesis acts as the most valuable methodological tool of the ongoing research.  A hypothesis is an assumption that follows from a theory.

The existence of such an assumption, indicated in the introduction of the thesis, has not yet been proven and experimentally disproved. The author only has to successfully discover its truth or prove falsehood throughout the entire research work.

What is a Research Hypothesis?

A hypothesis acts as a statement in which the presence or existence of a relationship between several variables is assumed. A hypothesis is a predicted outcome that a study is about. The task of the author of the thesis is to empirically prove or refute this proposal.

A hypothesis doesn’t come out of nowhere. Its appearance is preceded by various guesses, which do not represent a hypothesis as such. A conjecture can be called a hypothesis if it includes a rationale based on proven positions.

It must be remembered that the formulation of a hypothesis is carried out on the basis of the problem under study. A brilliantly formulated assumption meets such requirements as the adequacy of the research question, the absence of conflict between new and old knowledge, and availability for verification. In addition, the prediction must be correct and simple, not reduced to trivial facts.

Stages in the Creation and Further Development of a Research Hypothesis:

  1. Revealing a certain group of facts that do not fit into long-known theories that need to be explained by a new assumption.
  2. Directly formulating a hypothesis, designed to explain the discovered facts.
  3. A deep study of the indicated prediction and the isolation of all kinds of consequences from it.
  4. Comparison of the implications of the hypothesis with existing scientific discoveries.
  5. Formation of new scientific knowledge from a hypothesis in the case of confirmation of the consequences derived from it and the absence of contradictions with the long-known postulates of science.

The hypothesis can be tested either by active experiment, or by finding correlations between those quantities, the relationship of which is of scientific interest.

All the collected data are summarized in the conclusion of the thesis and on their basis a conclusion is made about the validity of the hypothesis.

How to Correctly Formulate a Hypothesis

Even knowing the definition of a hypothesis, many students have difficulty formulating it.

So, a correctly formulated hypothesis must meet the following criteria:

  1. A hypothesis should not be an axiom and an obvious fact. For example, the statement that a person has a four-chambered heart is not suitable as a hypothesis for a diploma, since this fact has been known to science for a long time.
  2. A hypothesis should not be formulated with the help of unspecified concepts that themselves can become the object of research.
  3. Modern science must possess the tools to test a hypothesis.
  4. The hypothesis should be related to the object and subject of research.
  5. The hypothesis must be cognitively effective.

A hypothesis is a structural element that must be indicated in the introduction of the diploma. However, practice shows that it is advisable to formulate it much later, when the object and subject of research has been studied, a theoretical basis has been created, and there is a plan for empirical research.

This is due to the fact that often, based on the results of research, it is necessary to adjust the main elements of the diploma: object, subject, and sometimes a decision is made to change the topic of the thesis. Thus, the hypothesis is “fitted” to the research results.

Cliché Phrases Used to Formulate a Research Hypothesis:

  • Expected Result.
  • To be expected.
  • It is assumed that.
  • If … then.

So, the hypothesis is the vector guiding the research of the thesis. The success of the thesis project as a whole depends on how correctly the hypothesis is formulated.

 
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Medical literature review is a systematized description of the main postulates of information sources used to write a dissertation on a selected medical problem.
Why is a literature review of medicine needed?
The main goal of the literature review is a detailed analysis of previous studies of domestic / foreign scientists in the area under consideration, necessary to identify “gaps” / shortcomings in the relevant medical industry.
The author’s task is to reasonably substantiate the rationality of future research, proving its relevance / prospects for the development of modern medicine.

How to write a good literature review?

To write a competent, high-quality literary review on medicine, the author is advised to follow the detailed instructions, consisting of six basic steps.

  1. Choose the required presentation form

A clear, well-thought-out structure of the main sections of the review will facilitate the reader’s perception of the material, improving the overall impression of the work done. This approach will help to avoid the need for additional text revisions. The style of presentation is scientific, without bureaucratic / common expressions not on the main topic of the thesis.

  1. We design the text according to the requirements of GOST

The literary review is compiled in 12-point size Times New Roman (less often – Courier New) with one and a half line spacing.

Recommended margins: left – 3 cm, top – 3 cm, right – 1 cm, bottom – 2 cm.

  1. We compose the content of the text and coordinate it with the scientific advisor

The text of the literary review contains complete, in-depth information about the problem under consideration and corresponds to the topic of the dissertation. If the document is drawn up taking into account these conditions, the supervisor will approve it even with minor deviations from the recommended volume.

  1. Determine the scope of the review (depending on the chosen topic of the dissertation / medical direction)

The approximate volume of this section is up to 30 pages of printed text (excluding bibliography).

The recommended number of pages of literature review for Ph.D. theses in some medical areas:

  • Therapeutic specialties (including obstetrics, gynecology) – 30-32;
  • Surgery (traumatology, polytrauma) – 20-23;
  • Dentistry – 25-27 (depending on the type and volume of the dissertation research);
  • General hygiene – up to 20.

Recommended number of literature review sheets for doctoral dissertations in a number of medical fields:

  • Gynecology (therapy, obstetrics) – 40-42 (depends on the amount of scientific work);
  • Surgery – 30-40;
  • Orthopedics, traumatology – up to 40;
  • Dentistry – up to 38.
  • The final volume of the review is determined by the level of relevance of the topic under consideration and the number of reviewed literary sources on the topic of the dissertation.
  1. We draw up links to used literary sources

There are two types of links to used information sources:

  • Initials, surname of the author of the work, year of publication of the source (the method allows you to slightly increase the volume of lithographs);
  • Numbers in square brackets corresponding to the ordinal number of the source in the bibliography (a drawback of this type of design is the inability to add new sources due to the likelihood of a violation of the sequence of reference numbering).
  1. Working out the list of information sources

The list of reviewed literary sources is compiled in strict accordance with the requirements.

Where can I get information for a literature review on medicine?

To write an objective literary review of medicine, foreign sources are used.
Search for materials on the problem under consideration
When compiling a document, the author is allowed to use materials from journal articles, literary reviews of dissertations on the topic of scientific work and abstracts.

How to work properly with literature reviews by other researchers?

1. Changing the style / form of presentation is a mandatory, but difficult condition for medical dissertations.
2. Selection of materials, which considered the research of foreign authors on the selected problem of scientific work. This approach guarantees the objectivity of the presented data and will inspire confidence among the future potential audience.
3. Some reviews use outdated information, so care should be taken when selecting suitable materials for analysis.
4. A low level of uniqueness is a common problem among many dissertation candidates, therefore, when borrowing information, the author must take into account the indicators of the AntiPlagiarism program.

 
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Research paper work can be of two types:

  • Abstract;
  • Research

An abstract is explained as a study on a narrow research topic, involving several published scientific papers. The abstract implies the analysis of various points of view on the research topic contained in these scientific works and, as a final result, the development of your own point of view on the problem.

Research work is a study on a narrow topic, involving not only scientific literature, but also documentary sources, both published and unpublished. Introduction into circulation of any new document is involved in the research work, facts, theories, proven facts, etc.

Both types of research papers are valuable, but research papers undoubtedly carry more weight.

Theme Selection on a Research Paper

when choosing a topic for research work, it is necessary to proceed from its relevance, take into account the availability of sources and literature.

The topic wording should be specific. It is recommended to avoid topics that cover a wide time period, for example, “The History of the Theaters of Tsaritsyn, Stalingrad, Volgograd”, since within the framework of one work it is unlikely that it will be possible to cover all the available material in depth enough.

The topic should show the content of the research work, also, should be logically related to the purpose of the study.

The Structure of the Research Paper Work.

The research work consists of:

  • plan (content),
  • introduction,
  • the text of the research (divided into parts, chapters, paragraphs at the request of the author),
  • conclusions,
  • list of sources,
  • list of references,
  • applications.
  1. Introduction of a research paper.

In the introduction, the author substantiates the chosen topic, briefly explains what his scientific interest is.

The introduction should formulate the goal and objectives of the study, substantiate the relevance of the topic chosen by the author, determine the chronological framework of the study, provide a brief overview of existing sources and literature on this issue, stipulate on the basis of which sources this study was written.

  1. Research text.

The text of the research should correspond to the topic declared by the author and not go beyond the chronological framework specified in the introduction. Well-known facts should not be cited in the study. For example, when describing the activities of doctors during the Battle of Stalingrad, there is no need to tell the history of the Great Patriotic War from its beginning. The abundance of known facts can overshadow the new that you discovered in the course of your research. It is on new, interesting facts that you need to focus attention.

It is better to write in a scientific language strictly and neutral, without unnecessary emotions and embellishments.

In a research work, a scientific text is built as a chain of reasoning designed to prove a particular position of the work.

  • The text should be built logically.
  • The text of the research paper should not be blatant plagiarism.
  • The presented research material in the work must be reliable.
  • Avoid long, confusing phrases.
  • Work should never be written in solid text. Divide it into paragraphs and chapters.
  • 14-point size. Times New Roman font.
  • The research volume should not exceed 15 pages of standard printed text.
  1. Research Paper Conclusion. 

Conclusions are drawn from the study. Conclusions should flow from the purpose and objectives of the research that you identified in the introduction. You must determine whether or not it was possible to achieve the set goal.

  1. Lists of Sources and Literature.

Lists should contain all sources and books that you used in your research in alphabetical order, with an indication of the output.

  1. Applications.

Applications should be carefully selected to illustrate the highlights of the work. It is recommended to include copies of rare photographs, documents, various tables, graphs, figures in attachments, but these attachments should be associated with the text of the study. Links to applications in the text of the study are required.

Stages of Writing a Research Paper.

  1. The research topic is determined.
  2. It is revealed to what extent this topic is provided with sources and literature, and what aspects of this topic have not yet been studied.
  3. The goal and objectives of the research are formulated.
  4. A research work plan is drawn up. When drawing up a plan, the researcher determines the range of questions that he must answer in order to achieve the set goal. Optionally, you can divide the work into chapters (no more than 3). The research chapter can be divided into paragraphs (no more than 3-4). The titles of chapters and paragraphs should be clearly worded.
  5. Work with literature and sources.

Analyzing the literature, you can use the following scheme:

  • Author, brief information about him;
  • The problem posed by the author in his research;
  • The sources on the basis of which the study was written;
  • Basic ideas, concepts put forward by the author;
  • The conclusions of the author;
  • Your opinion about this study.
  1. Writing a draft of the work.
  2. Finalization of the structure of the work.
  3. Formulation of the topic of the work, based on the resulting research.

Writing the final research text.

 

 
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An annotated bibliography is an expanded version of a regular bibliography –those lists of sources that you find at the end of a research paper or book. The difference is that an annotated bibliography contains an additional feature: a paragraph or annotation under each bibliography entry.

The purpose of the annotated bibliography is to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of the articles and books that have been written on a particular subject.

When you are required to write an annotated bibliography, you are likely to be asking things like:

  • Why do I have to do this?
  • What should it look like?
  • How do I go about creating one?
  • Where can I find examples?

Why write an annotated bibliography?

The purpose of an annotated bibliography is to provide your teacher or research director with an overview of the research that has been published on a particular topic. If a professor or teacher asks you to write an annotated bibliography, he or she may expect you to take a good look at the sources that are available on a subject.

This project gives you an insight into the work a professional researcher would do. Every published article contains statements about the state of research on the topic.

A teacher may request that you use an annotated bibliography as the first step in a major writing research assignment. You would most likely write an annotated bibliography first, and then use a research paper to follow up on the sources you have found.

But one may find that the annotated bibliography is an assignment on its own. An annotated bibliography can also stand alone as a research project, and some annotated bibliographies published.

As a student requirement, a standalone annotated bibliography (one that is not followed by an academic paper assignment) would most likely take longer than a first step version.

What should annotated bibliography look like?

Ordinarily you would write the annotated bibliography like a normal bibliography, but you will need to add 4.59 concise sentences under each bibliography entry.

Your sentences should summarize the source content and explain how or why the source matters. It is up to you to decide why each element is important to your topic. Things you mention are:

  • The thesis of the source you support or not support.
  • The author has a unique experience or point of view on your subject.
  • The source has strengths and weaknesses.
  • The source provides a solid foundation for any paper you want to write.
  • The source leaves some questions unanswered.
  • The source has a political bias.

How do I write an annotated bibliography?

Your first step is to collect resources! Find a couple of good sources for your research, and then expand by consulting the bibliographies of those sources. They will lead you to the additional resources.

The depth of your research determines the number of sources.

Other factor that might be affected by a particular assignment and teacher is how deeply you read each of these sources. At some point you will expect to read each source carefully before putting it into your annotated bibliography.

Other times when you are doing an initial study of the sources available, for example your teacher doesn’t expect you to read each source carefully. Instead, you are expected to read parts of the sources and get an idea of ​​the content. Ask your teacher as you read each resource included.

Use alphabetical on your entries just like you should in a normal bibliography.

 

 
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We will discuss on writing abstract conclusion. The abstract conclusion usually consists of a summarizing paragraph and conclusions based on the goals and objectives of the research. This is the most important part of the work, summarizing all the material presented before. The results should be summed up in your own words, and not direct quotes from the previous text. The formulation must include the justification for the judgments expressed in the work. For a better perception of the material, it is advisable to write conclusions in a thesis, and not in continuous text, separately describing the results of each of the sections of the abstract.

What to Write in the Abstract Conclusion?

The closing section should not contain new information. Conclusion – summarizing the information presented in the work. In order not to deviate from the topic under study, when writing, you should focus on the tasks set in the introduction to the work. If the issue under consideration is relevant and interesting to the author, you can note your own attitude to the problem as a whole. Also, in conclusion, you can include a few short sentences and prospects for further research in a given direction.

How to Draw an Abstract conclusion

To write conclusions in the abstract, you need to carefully re-read its main part, highlight the main idea of ​​each section. Conclusions should not duplicate each other formally and even more so in meaning. You should adhere to a scientific style of presentation, avoid using personal pronouns, and strive to accurately convey the essence of the research.

Requirements for an Abstract Conclusion:

  • There should be a clear correlation with the designated goals and objectives of the study;
  • The presence of statistical and analytical data is desirable;
  • References are allowed only to the sources cited in the work, or to your own conclusions;
  • Clarity and unambiguity of wording.

Phrase Templates for an Abstract Conclusion

For writing conclusions, it is recommended to use certain speech patterns and clichés that will help avoid tautology:

  • Based on the analysis of the studied literature
  • Summing up the above
  • Thus, it can be argued
  • The work done allows
  • In conclusion, it should be noted
  • Summarizing the above
  • Based on analysis
  • Research has shown
  • The material presented in the work allows us to conclude
  • Based on the work done, it can be assumed
  • Determined that
  • Study authors come to
  • We researched (got)
  • We managed

Sample conclusion in the abstract according to the requirements for the preparation of abstracts, the size of the conclusion should not exceed one or two printed sheets. First of all, the theoretical part is summarized, after – the practical research.

The conclusion in the abstract is a summing up of the work, based on the analysis of the facts considered, systematized and carefully studied in the course of the study. Conclusions are a listing of the author’s beliefs, confirmed by the material used for the text of the work. A correctly drawn up conclusion significantly reduces the list of questions to the student when defending the abstract, if it is provided.

 
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A nursing dissertation writing is a large-scale academic work based on original research, sometimes presented as part of a doctoral, master’s, or bachelor’s work. This article will help you understand exactly what you should include in your work.

Defining the Structure of Your Dissertation

Not all dissertations are structured the same – the form in which you conduct your research will depend on your discipline, topic, and approach.

For example, dissertations in the humanities are often structured as long essays, providing a general argument in support of a central thesis, with chapters organized around different topics or case studies.

But if you are doing empirical research in the field of science, your dissertation should usually contain all of the following elements. In many cases, there will be a separate chapter for each of them, but sometimes you can combine them. The order of the sections can also vary.

If you are in doubt about how your thesis or dissertation should be structured, always check the recommendations and consult with your supervisor, or seek professional help, to help you draw up a work plan correctly. will provide comprehensive assistance and advice on other issues of writing a dissertation.

Thus, the website of the company “Dissertation” offers comprehensive assistance within a specified period of time: the completion of candidate’s work takes about 90 days, doctoral thesis – from 180 days, master’s thesis – from 25 days, and monographs – from 14 days. Since professors and doctors of science act as consultants, competent advice, high-quality presentation of the material, compliance with the necessary generally accepted standards, and the absence of plagiarism will be guaranteed. Your work can also be corrected or finalized, depending on the stage of writing.

Nursing Dissertation Front Page

The very first page of your document contains the title of your dissertation, your name, department, institution, program of study, and date of submission. Sometimes it also includes your supervisor’s name and the university logo. Many programs have strict requirements for the formatting of the dissertation title page.

Nursing Dissertation Acknowledgments

The thank you section is usually optional and gives you the opportunity to thank everyone who helped you write your dissertation. This could be your supervisors, your research participants, friends, or family members who have supported you.

Nursing Dissertation Annotation

An abstract is a summary of your dissertation, usually about 150-300 words.

Nursing Dissertation Content

In the table of contents, list all of your chapters and subheadings and page numbers. The content of the dissertation gives the reader an overview of your structure and helps to easily navigate the document. Every part of your dissertation should be included in the table of contents, including the appendices. You can create a table of contents automatically in Word if you use heading styles.

List of Figures and Tables in Nursing Dissertation

If you have used many tables and figures in your dissertation, you should list them in a numbered list. You can automatically create this list using the insert title feature in Word.

List of Abbreviations in Nursing Dissertation

If you have used many abbreviations in your dissertation, you can include them in an alphabetical list of abbreviations so that the reader can easily find their meanings.

Nursing Dissertation Glossary

If you have used a lot of highly specialized terms that your reader may not be familiar with, it might be a good idea to add a glossary. List the terms in alphabetical order and explain each term with a brief description or definition.

Introduction

In the introduction, you set the topic, purpose, and relevance of the dissertation and tell the reader what to expect in the remainder of the dissertation. In the introduction:

  • Define your research topic by providing the necessary background information to contextualize your work.
  • Narrow your focus and define the scope of your research
  • Discuss the state of existing research on the topic, showing the relevance of your work to a broader issue or debate
  • Be clear about your research questions and goals
  • Provide an overview of the structure of your dissertation

Everything in the introduction should be clear, engaging, and relevant to your research. By the end, the reader should understand what, why, and how you researched.

Literature Review / Theoretical Foundations

Before starting your research, you should conduct a literature review to get a complete picture of the academic work that already exists on your topic. It means:

  • Collecting sources (e.g. books and magazine articles) and selecting the most appropriate
  • Critically evaluate and analyze each source
  • Establish connections between them

In a chapter or section devoted to a dissertation review, you should not only summarize existing research, but develop a coherent structure and reasoning that will lead to a clear basis or rationale for your own research.

The literature review often becomes a theoretical framework in which you identify and analyze the key theories, concepts and models that form the basis of your research.

Methodology

The chapter or section of the methodology describes how you conducted the research, allowing the reader to assess its validity. Typically, you should include here:

  • General approach and type of research (e.g., qualitative, quantitative, experimental, ethnographic)
  • Your data collection methods (e.g. interviews, polls, archives)
  • Details of where, when and with whom the study was conducted
  • Your data analysis techniques (e.g., statistical analysis, discourse analysis)
  • Tools and materials, you used (e.g. computer programs, laboratory equipment)
  • Discuss any obstacles you encountered in doing your research and how you overcame them.
  • Your goal in methodology is to communicate exactly what you did and to convince the reader that this was the best approach to answering your research questions or objectives.

Results

Next, you report the results of your research. You can structure this section around sub-questions, hypothesis, or topics. Only report results that are consistent with your research objectives and questions. In some disciplines, the results section is strictly separated from discussion, while in others they are combined.

For example, for qualitative methods such as in-depth interviews, data presentation will often be woven together with discussion and analysis, while in quantitative and experimental studies, results must be presented separately before their meaning is discussed. If you are unsure, consult with your academic advisor and see sample dissertations to find the best structure for your research.

It is often useful to include tables, graphs and charts in the results section. Think carefully about how best to present your data, and don’t include tables or figures that simply repeat what you wrote – they should provide additional information or it is helpful to visualize the results in a way that adds value to your text.

Discussion

Discussion is where you examine the relevance of your findings to the resolution of your research questions. This is where you should interpret the results in detail, discussing whether they met your expectations and how well they fit the structure you built in the previous chapters. If any of the results were unexpected, please offer an explanation as to why this is so. It is recommended that you consider alternative interpretations of your data and discuss any limitations that might affect the results.

The discussion should refer to other scientific work to show how your results fit with existing knowledge. You can also provide recommendations for future research or action.

Conclusion

The dissertation conclusion should briefly answer the main research question, leaving the reader with a clear understanding of your main argument.

In some academic conventions, the conclusion refers to a short section that precedes the discussion: first, you state your general conclusions directly, and then you discuss and interpret their meaning.

In other contexts, however, the conclusion refers to the last chapter, where you completed your dissertation with a final reflection on what you did and how you did it. This type of conclusion also includes research or practice recommendations.

It is important in this section to show how your findings contribute to knowledge in this area and why your research matters. What have you added to what was already known?

List of References

You must include complete details of all sources you cited in your bibliography (sometimes also called a cited work list or bibliography).

 

 
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We will discuss scientific article writing requirements. Primarily, this depends on where the article will be published. When it comes to university collections, student publications, and so on, the rules may not be as strict as in the case when the material is planned to be published in a serious academic journal.

For the publication of scientific articles in publications that are recommended, the text of the research must meet strict requirements. Moreover, the prescriptions relate to both content and external design.

Scientific Article Writing Requirements

The publication of which is planned in the journals.

  1. Not a too long, succinct and understandable name, reflecting the essence of the work.
  2. Author’s information (full name, academic degrees and titles, place of study or work, city, country. Students indicate the data of their supervisor).
  3. The text should contain a short annotation.
  4. List of keywords.
  5. Introductory part.
  6. The main text of the study.
  7. List of references.

When writing a scientific article for a student collection or a serious scientific journal, you should start by choosing a topic.

This is not an easy task. The article research topic must satisfy several mandatory requirements. It should be a relevant topic and should give interest to the scientific community in solving the problems posed in the work. Another requirement for the topic of a scientific article is the novelty or difference of the research from other similar ones. Finally, the topic should be revealed in a unique text.

Another recommendation is not to choose too broad a topic for a scientific article. Even if the subject of research is global, some separate aspect should be highlighted for the article.

The fact being that the length of a scientific article is, as a rule, from 8 to 10 pages. It is necessary to be able to disclose the topic within this volume, as well as to comply with the structure of the study.

Structure of a Scientific Article

Work on the structure should start with drawing up an outline of the article, which will help to logically build the text and not miss anything important. The plan will include the mandatory elements of the structure of the text of a scientific article:

  1. Introduction, which includes the formulated goal and objectives of the work, justification of relevance and novelty.
  2. The theoretical part.
  3. The results of research, calculations, experiments, the results of the application of techniques.
  4. Conclusion, in which it is imperative to write about the result with which the goal set at the beginning of the study was achieved.
  5. List of specialized literature.

Where to publish a scientific article?

If we are talking about student research work, then it makes sense to pay attention to the publications included in the list of the Science Citation Index (SCI), as well as to collections of articles that are published as a result of student research conferences. For a graduate student applying for a scientific degree, a mandatory requirement will be published in reputable journals permitted.

 

 
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Scientific article writing methodology is important not only for university professors or graduate students. Modern students carry out a lot of research in the course of their studies, the most voluminous of which are diploma and term papers. Besides, students often take part in academic conferences, scientific readings, and academic competitions. To become a participant in such events and be among the authors of the collection of abstracts, which is almost always published as a result of such conferences, a student needs to have the skills of writing a scientific article.

Methodology is referred as the overarching rationale and strategy of your research. Methodology development involves research method studying used in your field and the theories that underpin them, this helps to choose the approach that best suits your objectives.

Methods said to be the specific tools and procedures that one use on collecting and analyzing data (e.g. experiments, interviews, surveys, statistical tests).

Usually, a scientific advisor helps in conducting research and preparing a scientific article based on its results. But it is useful for the student himself to familiarize himself with the method of writing a scientific article because there is always a possibility that he will have to do the work completely independently.

It should be borne in mind that each area of ​​research is different. Humanities, technical or natural sciences may have their own unique requirements for scientific work. However, there are also universal academic rules, which will be discussed below.

Stages of Scientific Article Writing Methodology

One should start by choosing a topic or even just a direction, the very idea of ​​research. Of course, it is important to remember the novelty and relevance of the topic. However, it is equally important that the object of research be interesting to the student and be a promising direction for further scientific activity.

Once the topic has been identified, it’s time to move on to drawing up a research plan. To do this, you should start by studying the literature (monographs in the library, current and recent articles on the topic on the Internet). The results of this activity should be a plan for a future article and rough sketches on the topic. It is recommended to submit a draft article for approval to the supervisor and, after his approval, proceed directly to writing the article.

Research Structure on Scientific Article Writing Methodology

  • Write an introduction. Here it will be necessary to justify the choice of the topic and object of study, to say about their relevance and the novelty of their approach, to prescribe goals and set tasks.
  • Put forward a hypothesis of work (based on the studied literature).
  • Conduct practical research (experience, experiment, observation, calculation).
  • Summarize the results obtained and formulate a conclusion.
  • Make a list of used literature in alphabetical order.

Several Nuances When Writing a Scientific Article

  1. Articles intended for publication in publications must necessarily have annotations and keywords.
  2. Any scientific article intended for publication must contain footnotes. It is recommended to do them at least 3-4.
  3. Moderate citation on the topic of authoritative sources is also encouraged.
  4. You need to express your thoughts in a scientific language, you need to use special terminology.
  5. The recommended length (8-10 pages) should be observed and the text should not be overloaded with details and additional topics.

The main thing to remember is that writing any scientific article, among other things, is a creative process. Therefore, a researcher needs to choose an interesting and close topic for himself. With inspiration and enthusiasm, one can make a real scientific discovery.

The methodology should include sources and references that support your choice of methods and procedures, compared to the literature review that provides a general outlook and framework for your study.

 

 
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Scientists can avoid plagiarism with proper preparation, a good understanding of the subject, contributions to useful and unique research, adding the right citations, and finally checking the article for plagiarism.

Before submitting your next manuscript for publication, ask yourself the following questions and find out if you are the original author of your article.

1. Do I understand the topic well?

When you understand a subject well, you are less likely to use the other person’s words and ideas. Before you start writing, dive deeply into your chosen research topic. Get as much information as possible from books, magazines, videos, articles, and other sources. Using different sources not only increases knowledge, but also reduces the chances of inadvertent copying or plagiarism. By relying on one source of information, you increase the likelihood that you will use the words or ideas of that person.

2. Can I contribute in any way to this topic ?

If you have nothing new or original to say in terms of the rationale or content of the study, you summarize or paraphrase the work of other authors. Nobel laureate poet TS Eliot summarizes this, saying: “Immature poets imitate; mature poets steal; bad poets depersonalize the borrowed, and good poets turn it into something better, or at least into something else. A good poet plunges the stolen into his unique world of feelings, completely different from the one from which it was plucked; a bad poet tries to unite the incompatible. ” Enough has been said.

3. How detailed are my notes?

Take detailed notes and follow the original sources carefully. Make it a habit to write down bibliographic information about sources of publications, including author names, article titles, page numbers, and web addresses. Always write down your own source of information; never rely on other authors’ footnotes. Plagiarism.org recommends the use of colored markers to distinguish original ideas from materials taken from sources. Making it a rule will be easy to cite original sources in the text and submit your articles on time.

4. Are these ideas or arguments entirely my own?

This question may sound obvious, but sometimes it’s difficult for readers to distinguish between your ideas and the work that someone else has done. When building your ideas from other sources, make sure there is a clear demarcation. Sometimes, even if you cite the original sources, the use of an undefined language can lead to inadvertent plagiarism. Readers should have no doubt about which ideas belong to you. Check the article for plagiarism and find ways to avoid it.

5. Is it written in my own words?

This even applies to words and imprecise paraphrases. Answer being a no, directly quoting from the passage or rewriting it in your own words and give credit to the original author. According to the new Collegiate Dictionary of the English Language (Webster), plagiarism is “the unauthorized use of another author’s language and thoughts and presenting them as one’s own” (508). A safe way to do this is to make sure that you don’t copy more than two words verbatim.

6. Do I need to quote this?

When using direct quotation, paraphrasing or generalizing another person’s ideas, borrowing an idea or using facts that are not generally known, you must provide a link to the original source. This includes tables, maps, graphs, and various data. Learn to use footnotes, footnotes, and parenthetical links to sources. This will add credibility to your reasoning and strengthen your article by proving that you did your research yourself and are able to process ideas and complement them with your own. Don’t forget to put quotes in quotes

7. Have I done my best to avoid plagiarism?

Using plagiarism checker services is a great way to assess your paraphrases and other plagiarism-fighting skills. Powerful plagiarism checker software helps you avoid career suicide, understand what plagiarism is and keep your distance from it.

Thus, whether your research papers are read by hundreds of readers around the world or just by your peers or family, proper citation of primary sources should be commonplace. There is a thin but very clear line between educational innovation and intellectual theft. It is easy to get ahead of plagiarism. Make it a habit to start your research early, include information using quotations or paraphrases, give credit where necessary, and learn how to use different citation styles such as MLA to refer to information.

 
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